Time-of-flight (TOF) MR techniques are not employed for evaluation of the mesenteric arteries for a number of reasons. Images have to be acquired orthogonal to flow, meaning that depiction of the ostia of both the celiac artery and sMa is prone to error because the flow within the aorta is at right angles to that in the proximal part of both vessels. This creates artifacts at the vessel origins where most of the pathology in patients with chronic mesenteric ischemia occurs. Due to the anatomic predisposition of the celiac artery and the SMA it is not possible to optimize a single TOF sequence for depiction of the two arteries. In addition, misregistration artifacts may arise in patients with limited breath-holding capabilities because of the need to acquire images during suspended respiration.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.