Takayasu Arteritis

Takaysu arteritis is a chronic inflammatory arteritis of unknown origin resulting in thrombosis, stenosis, dilatation and aneurysm formation of the aorta, aortic branch vessels, and pulmonary arteries. Mural calcification and thickening of the aortic wall can also be observed [29]. Symptoms of the disease include an onset beginning in the second decade of life up to the seventh decade, with a mean within the third decade. Early symptoms include dyspnoea and haemoptysis, progressing vascular dissection, cerebrovascular accident and aortic insufficiency with resulting heart failure [30].

T1w MR imaging demonstrates structural wall inhomogeneities and focal thrombi. With SSFP sequences aspects of valvular function can be investigated, permitting detection of possible aortic valve insufficiency. 3D CE MRA can demonstrate the extent of the disease, the grade of arterial stenosis and the formation of aneurysms. On contrast enhanced cross sectional images the inflammatory activity of the disease may be assessed. Intramural neovascularity, high signal of the thickened vascular wall and periaortic tissues reflect activity of the disease. Mural enhancement is also seen in chronic active disease. In this context MR imaging is a good diagnostic tool for therapeutic control [31].

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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