With this sequence, high SNR and very high contrast between the ventricular blood-pool and the myocardium can be obtained without the need for exogenous contrast enhancement. The application of SSFP is therefore highly promising for contrast enhancement in 3D coronary MRA, in which the in-flow effect is generally reduced due to relatively thick slab excitations . Presently, more and more cardiac MRI centers are adopting SSFP sequences either in conjunction with a single breath-hold  or based on free-breathing with navigators . A first evaluation in an animal model demonstrated that SSFP imaging permits high quality coronary MRA during free breathing with substantial improvements in SNR, CNR and vessel sharpness when compared with standard T2-pre-pared gradient-echo imaging .Although spiral imaging achieved the highest SNR, SSFP imaging was considered better for image quality and vessel definition. In a small volunteer study to evaluate theoretical considerations concerning the T1-lowering characteristics of contrast agents , consistent fat suppression and a 78% increase in blood-myocardial CNR was found post contrast using SSFP.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.