Pulmonary artery stenosis is seen without ventricular septal defect in about 8% of patients with congenital heart disease. In most cases the finding is asymptomatic, although it may be accompanied by cyanotic congenital heart disease. Due to turbulent blood flow, ectasia of the pre- and/or poststenotic part of the vessel may occur.
In cases of pulmonary atresia the continuity between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk is interrupted. The right ventricular outflow tract shows hypoplasia and may end blindly. In addition, the main pulmonary artery appears hy-poplastic or even atretic and the left and right pulmonary arteries are usually underdeveloped. In most cases, this anomaly is associated with a large ventricular septum defect and formation of collaterals such as dilated intercostal and bronchial arteries as well as a persistent ductus arteriosus Bo-talli (Fig. 10) .
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