Although signal loss due to turbulence and inplane saturation is usually not present in CE MRA, overestimation of the length of a stenosis can still occur especially at high velocity rates at the stenot-ic area and with a low concentration of contrast agent [25].

Other artifacts may also be encountered in CE MRA. For example, in the subclavian region susceptibility artifacts in the subclavian vein may result in signal void and thus an artificial stenosis of the adjacent artery [26]. Susceptibility artifacts may also occur due to signal voids arising from the presence of clips and metallic stents. Finally, as in all CE MRA procedures, subtraction misregistration artifact may also occur.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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