Phase-contrast (PC) MRA techniques can be used to assess the mesenteric vasculature using either 3D  or 2D approaches [10-13]. An advantage of the 3D-technique is that images can be acquired in any plane . However, as scan times are long, this technique is prone to respiratory motion artifacts. In addition, ghost artifacts caused by diminished and reversed flow during systole, can hamper image quality. Although this latter limitation can be addressed by means of cardiac triggering, a further increase in scan time results and respiratory motion artifacts remain a problem.
Two-dimensional cardiac-gated PC MRA techniques have been implemented with the mesen-teric vasculature to provide functional information [10-13]. This approach segments the phase data acquired at different points throughout the cardiac cycle to provide quantitative flow measurements including flow velocities and flow volume.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.