Antecubital Fossa Anatomy

The normal anatomy of the aortic arch is shown in Figure 1. The right brachiocephalic trunk gives rise to the common carotid artery, vertebral artery and the subclavian artery. The left subclavian artery originates from the aortic arch as the last major branch. The subclavian artery continues as the axillary artery after crossing the lateral margin of the first rib. The axillary artery then gives rise to the superior and lateral thoracic arteries and the arteries that supply the shoulder region. After coursing beyond the inferior lateral margin of the teres major muscle, the axillary artery becomes the brachial artery. The brachial artery courses along the medial aspect of the upper arm and gives rise to the deep brachial artery and arteries around the elbow joint (Fig.2). Anteriorly in the antecubital fossa, the brachial artery divides into the radial

Aorta Drawing

Fig. 1. Schematic drawing of the aortic arch

I Ascending aorta

II Aortic arch

III Descending aorta

Fig. 1. Schematic drawing of the aortic arch

I Ascending aorta

II Aortic arch

III Descending aorta

A Brachiocephalic trunk (innominate artery) B Right common carotid artery C Right subclavian artery D Left common carotid artery E Left subclavian artery

Upper Arm Arteries

Fig. 2. Schematic drawing of the arterial anatomy of the right upper arm

A Brachiocephalic trunk (innominate artery) B Right common carotid artery C Right vertebral artery D Right subclavian artery E Right axillary artery F Right brachial artery

Fig. 2. Schematic drawing of the arterial anatomy of the right upper arm

A Brachiocephalic trunk (innominate artery) B Right common carotid artery C Right vertebral artery D Right subclavian artery E Right axillary artery F Right brachial artery a Internal thoracic artery b Thyreocervical trunk c Thoracoacromeal artery d Dorsal thoracic artery e Anterior and posterior humeral circumflex artery f Deep brachial artery g Collateral radial artery h Collateral ulnar artery

I Recurrent radial artery j Recurrent ulnar artery

Fig. 3. Schematic drawing of the arterial anatomy of the right lower arm and the hand A Brachial artery B Radial artery C Ulnar artery a Interosseus artery b Superficial arch c Deep arch d Metacarpal arteries e Digital arteries and ulnar arteries. The radial artery courses along the radial side of the forearm to the wrist, and then turns medially to give rise to the deep palmar arch. The ulnar artery is generally larger than the radial artery, and, at the level of the wrist, gives rise to the deep palmar arch and a superficial branch to the superficial arch. The superficial palmar arch is usually the more prominent and distal of the arches (Fig.3). Although many variants exist, the deep palmar arch is usually complete (97% of cases) with variations much less common than in the superficial arch [2]. The metacarpal and digital arteries arise from these palmar arches.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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