Malformation of the Aortic Arch

Malformations of the aortic arch may be classified on the basis of position relative to the trachea, esophagus and the origin and course of the subclavian arteries. Many different classifications of malformations of the aortic arch have been described. However, most reasonable classifications derive from the hypothetical double aortic arch of Edwards, in which two aortic arches form a ring around the trachea and the oesophagus with separate origins of the subclavian and carotid arteries and a left and a right ductus arteriosus.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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