Techniques and applications for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) have developed rapidly in recent years, due largely to advances in hard- and software design. The advent of innovative new contrast agents with properties distinct from those of the traditional, extracellular gadolinium agents promises to further expand the clinical applicability of CE-MRA, making this the modality of choice for diagnostic imaging of the vasculature. With few exceptions, most of the commercially available contrast agents are not approved directly for CE-MRA [1, 2]. The present review summarizes the properties and imaging applications of currently available contrast agents which are in routine use in CE-MRA. Described also are those agents in clinical development which may one day find utility in CE-MRA.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.