cally made of PTFE or Dacron since vein grafts are not used in the upper extremity. Examples in the upper limbs are carotid-subclavian bypass, reconstruction of innominate and subclavian arteries (Fig. 9) and axilloaxillary bypass. Also, the axillary artery is often used as a source of inflow in patients with lower extremity disease (axillofemoral bypass), who are not candidates for direct aortic reconstruction or in whom angioplasty or stenting has failed (Fig. 10).
Was this article helpful?
This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.