Future Perspectives

At present pulmonary MRA and pulmonary perfusion MRI are not in widespread use in routine clinical practice. In large part this is because of the exquisite spatial resolution achievable with contrast enhanced CTA. However, continuing technical developments now allow CE MRA to compete with CTA and even catheter angiography for a variety of

Pictures Pulmonary Vein Formation

Fig. 14. Pulmonary vein stenosis in a patient post right middle and lower lobectomy. The postoperative MIP image of a 3D CE MRA dataset (Gd-BOPTA, 0.1 mmol/kg) demonstrates significant stenosis of the upper lobe pulmonary vein (arrow) in patient post bilobectomy due to bronchial carcinoma. The stenosis is most likely caused by scar formation since no remaining solid tumor or evidence of recurrent disease could be demonstrated [Image courtesy of Dr. G. Schneider]

Fig. 14. Pulmonary vein stenosis in a patient post right middle and lower lobectomy. The postoperative MIP image of a 3D CE MRA dataset (Gd-BOPTA, 0.1 mmol/kg) demonstrates significant stenosis of the upper lobe pulmonary vein (arrow) in patient post bilobectomy due to bronchial carcinoma. The stenosis is most likely caused by scar formation since no remaining solid tumor or evidence of recurrent disease could be demonstrated [Image courtesy of Dr. G. Schneider]

applications. Future development of easy-to-use quantitative pulmonary perfusion analysis tools as well as the possibility to perform pulmonary MRA/perfusion MRI in combination with MRI ventilation imaging may permit a one-stop-shop approach.

The clinical applicability of such a comprehensive examination has already been demonstrated in research studies. Further refinement is underway to permit the transfer of this exciting technology to routine clinical practice.

Fig. 15a, b. Evaluation of pulmonary perfusion in pulmonary vein stenosis pre- and post-surgery. Parametric maps before (a) and after (b) surgery clearly show reduced perfusion of the right lung prior to surgery (arrows in a). An almost normal parametric map can be demonstrated post surgery (b)

Mri Images Lung And Aorta

Fig. 16a, b. Bronchial carcinoma with encasement of the right main pulmonary artery. aThe ECG-gated, breath hold coronal T1w image shows a solid tumor (arrow) at the right pulmonary hilum infiltrating into the mediastinum with the right main pulmonary artery adjacent to the mass. On a MIP image (b) of the corresponding CE MRA study (Gd-BOPTA, 0.1 mmol/kg) a circular stenosis (arrow) of the pulmonary artery can be seen which makes the diagnosis of infiltration of the right main pulmonary artery most likely [Images courtesy of Dr. G. Schneider]

Fig. 16a, b. Bronchial carcinoma with encasement of the right main pulmonary artery. aThe ECG-gated, breath hold coronal T1w image shows a solid tumor (arrow) at the right pulmonary hilum infiltrating into the mediastinum with the right main pulmonary artery adjacent to the mass. On a MIP image (b) of the corresponding CE MRA study (Gd-BOPTA, 0.1 mmol/kg) a circular stenosis (arrow) of the pulmonary artery can be seen which makes the diagnosis of infiltration of the right main pulmonary artery most likely [Images courtesy of Dr. G. Schneider]

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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