Double Aortic Arch

A double aortic arch develops if both embryologic arches persist and form a vascular ring around the trachea and the oesophagus. Usually these patients are asymptomatic and a double aortic arch is an isolated condition. If the vascular ring results in a stenosis of the trachea or the oesophagus typical symptoms may include stridor, dyspnea, recurrent pneumonia and dysphagia. Typically, in a double aortic arch the "four-artery sign" is found with each arch giving rise to a ventral carotid artery and a dorsal subclavian artery (Fig. 4).

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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