A double aortic arch develops if both embryologic arches persist and form a vascular ring around the trachea and the oesophagus. Usually these patients are asymptomatic and a double aortic arch is an isolated condition. If the vascular ring results in a stenosis of the trachea or the oesophagus typical symptoms may include stridor, dyspnea, recurrent pneumonia and dysphagia. Typically, in a double aortic arch the "four-artery sign" is found with each arch giving rise to a ventral carotid artery and a dorsal subclavian artery (Fig. 4).
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.