Contrast Enhanced Renal MRA

Gadolinium-based contrast material shortens the T1 relaxation time of blood, thereby increasing in-travascular signal for high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), high resolution arteriograms during breath-holding. Most of the published studies of 3D Gd renal MRA have been performed on high field 1.5 Tesla MR scanners. This reflects the importance of high SNR, which scales roughly linearly with field strength. Low field MR scanners at 0.5 Tesla or less have about 1/3 of the SNR and thus are less likely to provide as much vascular detail. It is expected that 3 Tesla MR scanners will offer further improvements in image quality, however, at present this is traded off against the lack of suitable coils and design deficiencies in the currently available 3T MR systems. MR scanners with high gradient performance enable breath-hold acquisitions with smaller voxel sizes for higher spatial resolution data and improved visualization of vascular detail.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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