Although new intravascular MR contrast agents are currently being evaluated in clinical trials, their possible role in peripheral MRA is questionable. Because of the short arterio-venous window in the upper extremity, intravascular blood pool agents are at present not useful due to the rapid venous overlap. Probably only agents with higher relaxivi-ty such as gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance, Gd-BOPTA; Bracco Imaging SpA)  or more highly concentrated agents such as gadobutrol (Gadovist, Schering AG), may be applied successfully to MR imaging of the small vessels in the hand .
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.