Although atherosclerotic narrowing can affect any artery in the body, by far the most common site is the lower extremity [ 1-4]. In the US, arteriosclerot-ic lower limb disease is responsible for approximately 60,000 percutaneous angioplasty procedures and 100,000 amputations . Because of the widespread and systemic nature of the disorder and the multiplicity of lesions that typically occurs, accurate "mapping" of the arterial tree is essential to guide appropriate percutaneous or surgical intervention. Although this was traditionally only possible with conventional catheter arteriog-raphy [5-7], usually performed with a subtraction technique, recent developments in MRA now offer the potential for comprehensive non-invasive evaluation of the vasculature from above the aortic bifurcation to pedal arch. The limitation of poor spatial coverage in the cranio-caudal direction due to limited magnet bore length in relation to the large field-of-view requirement has been overcome by implementation of the "moving-table" technique. Other competing non-invasive modalities such as duplex ultrasound have failed to establish a widespread role in management of peripheral vascular disease [3,8]. Multi-detector CT (MDCT) although promising shares with DSA the drawbacks of exposure of the patient to ionizing radiation and nephrotoxic contrast agents and has not undergone systematic review .
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.