Contrast agents for CE-MRA fall into two broad categories, those based on gadolinium which are predominantly paramagnetic in nature, and those based upon iron oxide particles which are super-paramagnetic in nature. Agents in the former category can be sub-classified further into agents with no capacity for interaction with intravascular proteins and those with either weak or strong capacity for protein interaction. Similarly, agents in the latter category can be sub-divided on the basis of the size and coating of the iron oxide particles present. A summary of contrast agents that are either available or in advanced stages of development is given Fig. 1. A brief outline of these agents has been given elsewhere .
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.