Artifacts originating from metallic implants such as clips or sternal wires are accentuated on gradient echo based bright blood coronary MRA. Furthermore, thrombus, vessel wall and various plaque components may appear with high signal intensity on bright blood coronary MRA .As a result, luminal stenosis may be obscured on bright blood images. To overcome this potential drawback, 'black-blood' fast spin-echo coronary MRA techniques have recently been introduced [23,33]. With these techniques, the coronary lumen appears signal attenuated while the signal of surrounding tissue including epicardial fat and my-
ocardium appears enhanced. Initial results obtained in patients suggest that artifacts originating from metallic implants can be minimized. However, a principal disadvantage of dual-inversion black-blood coronary MRA is that calcifications appear signal attenuated resulting in the possibility for misinterpretation of calcified stenosis. On the other hand, black-blood coronary MRA has proven very useful for the visualization of the vessel wall as discussed below.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.