Clinical Indications Background

Vertebral Artery Branches

Clinical indications for noninvasive vascular diagnostic modalities have increased in the last ten years due to rapid developments in technology and subsequent improvements of spatial resolution. Improvements in imaging of intracranial vessels have occurred in large part due the possibility to acquire larger volumes. Major advantages of MRA over CTA for the study of intracranial circulation are that it is less invasive, is not entirely dependent on the need for contrast media, and permits...

Normal Anatomy and Anatomic Variations

Subclavian Anatomy Vertebral Artery

The aortic arch and great vessel origins are best shown on the CE MRA. They are also seen to relatively good advantage on the 2D TOF images although stairstep artifact is usually quite noticeable in this region due to a combination of vessel pulsation and respiratory motion at the level of the aortic arch. This motion degradation is minimized with CE MRA due to the rapid acquisition and the averaging of pulsatile motion across the entire 3D data acquisition set. The common carotid arteries...