Cancer Immunotherapy

Cancer immunotherapies fight against billions of tumor cells in a dynamic process that involves downregulation of tumor major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and or TAA, selection of resistant tumor clones, and other mechanisms of escape as well as local systemic immunodepression (6). Moreover, TAA are frequently also expressed in nontransformed cells. Thus, the immune system is likely to have developed some degree of tolerance toward TAA. Furthermore, nearly all preventive vaccines developed...

Effect Of Drugrelease Rate On Therapeutic Effect

Minimum Effective Concentration

Until now, there have been very few studies on the implications of drug-release rates for the therapeutic effects of lipid-based formulations. The drug-delivery community is now beginning to try to design experiments that will shed light on this important concept. It is useful to consider the two extremes. If the drug is released rapidly from the formulation see Section on Rapid-Release Formulations of Lipid-Based Drugs , then the therapeutic effect will be approximately equivalent to that of...

Intrapleural Administration of Liposomes for Cancer Therapy

The pleural space is the region between the mesothelium of the parietal pleura, which surrounds and covers the inner surface of the thoracic cage, mediastinum, and diaphragm and the visceral pleura, which covers the entire surface of the lung. Openings between mesothelial cells in the diaphragm and in the dorso-caudal part of the thorax-called stomata are the exit points for pleural liquid, protein, and cells that are removed from the pleural space 53.54 . The stomata communicates directly with...

Liposomes for Anticancer Lymph Node Drug Delivery

The investigation of liposomes as a carrier for lymph node drug delivery was first performed by Segal et al. in 1975 49 . Following the intratesticular injection of liposomes encapsulating the anticancer drug actinomycin D, high concentrations of the drug were found in the local lymph nodes. Subsequently, Hirnle et al. turned to liposomes as an improved carrier for intralymphatically delivered drugs compared with bleomycin emulsions 50 . A study in rabbits used liposome-encapsulated bleomycin...

Structure Of Lymph Node

Lymph Node Efferent

Recently, liposomes have received much attention as lymph-node drug-delivery agents. This interest in the development of new methods of lymph-node drug-delivery stems from the increasing awareness of the importance of lymph nodes in cancer prognosis, their importance for vaccine immune stimulation and the realization that the lymph nodes harbor human immunodeficiency virus HIV as well as other infectious disease 1-4 . New methods of delivering drugs and antigens to lymph nodes are currently...