Cancer Immunotherapy

Cancer immunotherapies fight against billions of tumor cells in a dynamic process that involves downregulation of tumor major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and or TAA, selection of resistant tumor clones, and other mechanisms of escape as well as local systemic immunodepression (6). Moreover, TAA are frequently also expressed in nontransformed cells. Thus, the immune system is likely to have developed some degree of tolerance toward TAA. Furthermore, nearly all preventive vaccines developed...