Organ transplantation has been developed as ultimative option in patients with end-stage organ diseases. New immunosuppressive regimens and improved perioperative management did improve the short-term results during the last decade, however, insufficient control of chronic rejection and side effects of continuous immunosuppression limit the long-term success of this approach. The immunosuppressive drugs used today suppress both unspecific inflammatory reactions and specific T-cell activation. Unfortunately, these powerful drugs also prevent the activation of the endogenous counterregulatory processes that control the immune response (e.g., regulatory T cells, anti-inflammatory cytokines). Thus, targeting more selective the inflammatory process would be of outstanding interest.
IL-10 might be an ideal candidate for this approach as it expresses both direct anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory properties. Therefore, IL-10 has been administered in various models of cell and organ transplantation using different ways of application which will be discussed in the following chapter.
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