Mechanisms of Action

IL-10 acts on specific IL-10 receptors that have now been cloned, although the signal transduction pathways and kinases that lead to the widespread anti-inflammatory actions of this cytokine are not yet well understood.6 Activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-KB (NF-kB) is important for switching on multiple inflammatory genes in allergic diseases.20,21 Many of the actions of IL-10 that are relevant to allergic diseases can be explained by an inhibitory effect on NF-kB, as a result of reduced activity of inhibitor of NF-kB kinases (IKK), as well as reducing binding of NF-kB to its recognition sites in the promoter regions of inflammatory genes.22,23 But this cannot account for all of the effects of IL-10. For example, IL-10 is very

Figure 1. IL-10 has a broad spectrum of anti-allergic effects.

effective at inhibiting IL-5 transcription which is independent of NF-kB.24 In mice many effects of IL-10 appear to be mediated by an inhibitory effect on phosphodiesterase (PDE)-4,25 but this does not appear to be the case in human cells.26'27 An antibody to IL-10 increases the release of cytokines from monocytes after activation, indicating an important endogenous negative feedback role of IL-10 in these cells, but this blocking antibody does not reduce the anti-inflammatory effect of PDE4 inhibitors.

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Cure Tennis Elbow Without Surgery

Cure Tennis Elbow Without Surgery

Everything you wanted to know about. How To Cure Tennis Elbow. Are you an athlete who suffers from tennis elbow? Contrary to popular opinion, most people who suffer from tennis elbow do not even play tennis. They get this condition, which is a torn tendon in the elbow, from the strain of using the same motions with the arm, repeatedly. If you have tennis elbow, you understand how the pain can disrupt your day.

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