Longevity Health and Wellness Protocol

Longevity Blueprint

This product was authored and created by Ben Green. This guy is a nutritionist and a consultant in matters regarding nutrition and health. With time, he has evolved into a fitness coach, author and also a bio hacker. His work was inspired by the observance of his chronological age being younger than the biological age. The man realized that at the age of 30-yeasr, his body functioned like that of a 20-year old boy. This product has the powerful protocols that am sure will change your life for good. The author realized that even the most influential well-being article only focuses on the physical fitness and nothing else. This eBook is designed to provide you a complete well-being evolution which covers beauty, fitness, health and longevity. It is an 8 week protocol with all the details that teaches you about the important parameters that adds to your longevity. The program has all the details to help you find out your current fitness level and later discover powerful practices that will break out your metabolism. Read more...

Longevity Blueprint Summary


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Longevity Blueprint Review

Highly Recommended

This book comes with the great features it has and offers you a totally simple steps explaining everything in detail with a very understandable language for all those who are interested.

This book served its purpose to the maximum level. I am glad that I purchased it. If you are interested in this field, this is a must have.

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Do Both Angioplasty And Heart Surgery Make You Live Longer

Although angioplasty improves angina and allows more blood to get to the heart muscle, it has not been shown to increase life expectancy. Heart bypass surgery, however, improves life expectancy but only in patients who have a severely weakened heart muscle and important narrowings in all three heart arteries, or if the origin of the left artery (which gives rise to the two main left arteries) is severely narrowed.

On Life Longevity Problems

The world of death-dealing and life-saving genes is complex and ever growing. Various laboratories studied not only particular gene products (among these products is senstatine protein that can reverse the aging process in skin cells, in nerves within the brain, and in certain blood vessel cells), but also how multiple interactions between many genes can cause die cell to live or die (longevity assurance genes (LAG genes), miscellaneous genes including multiple aging genes (the final total may run into the thousands)). Among many factors, the human growth hormone, hGH, has a great deal to do with human longevity. After the age of 60, this hormone begins to shut down. The process is called hGH menopause. The certain procedures of injecting this hormone have resulted in not only stopping normal march toward aging, but also reversing certain biological functions. In conclusion, we would like to quote from Dr. Michael Jazwinski, Louisiana Possibly in 30 years we will have in hand the...


Vitalism is the belief that there is a metaphysical, supernatural, nonmaterial, idealist elan vital, a life force that distinguishes living from nonliving matter. Vitalism has its roots in the German idealist philosophy of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831), F.W.A. Schelling (1775-1854), and L. Oken (1779-1851) in the nineteenth century, members of a romantic philosophic movement, Naturphilosophie, who believed all creation was a manifestation of a World Spirit. They believed all matter possessed this Spirit and organized bodies had it to an intense degree. In the nineteenth century, it was quite possible to be a vitalist, believing in a vital force or elan vital, without thinking of the vital force being supernatural. At the time it was as valid to attribute the laws and effects of vitality to a nonmaterial vital force as it was to attribute the laws and effects of gravity to a nonmaterial gravitational force. The difficulties that the neo-vitalists urge against the...

Seed Longevity

There is also great variation in seed longevity among plants. The seeds of elms, magnolia, and soft maple remain alive for only several days the seeds of willow and poplar survive for several weeks and the seeds of a number of species, especially weeds, remain viable for many years. In 1879, Professor W.J. Beal of Michigan State College (now Michigan State University) initiated a long-range experiment whereby seeds of twenty common plant species were mixed with sand and put in storage. Every five years, seeds of each species were taken up and tested for viability. Because the viability proved more than expected, the time period was extended to ten years so as not to run out of stored seeds. The results of this experiment are shown in table 36-1. Seeds of certain bean-family plants have been removed from herbarium specimens known to be more than one hundred years old and have been successfully germinated. An incredible example of seed longevity was exhibited by Nelumbo nucifera seeds...

Longevity and aging

Insulin Signalling Pathway

The nematode C. elegans has developed into a classical model for the study of aging. Most of this research is motivated by a possible connection with aging in humans, but the new insights accumulated over the last few years are of equal relevance to ecology and life-history theory. It also appears that the properties of the molecular machinery regulating aging are shared with Drosophila and are even conserved across the whole animal kingdom. The main reason why C. elegans became a model for aging was due to the discovery of mutants that showed extended longevity. It turned out that the genes mutated to extend longevity were the same as those associated with the formation of dauer larvae. The dauer larva is a developmentally arrested stage, the entry of which is triggered by adverse conditions such as food shortage or crowding (see Section 3.3). Here we will consider the signalling pathways associated with dauer formation as well as extended longevity. The first report of single-gene...

Richard E Anderson md facp

It is a difficult time to be a physician in the United States. In an era when life expectancy is increasing, when major progress has been recognized in the prevention and treatment of coronary artery and cerebrovas-cular disease, when a new generation of biologic therapies is beginning to reward decades of effort in the battle against cancer, when AIDS has become treatable and preventive vaccines are entering clinical trials, when CAT scanning and MRIs have revolutionized our windows into the human body, when surgeons can utilize noninvasive operative techniques and robotic surgery is a reality, when science is now unveiling the genomic abnormalities in a host of human diseases, how can this be

Antigens And Their Receptors

There are a number of adjuvants which are commonly used, and whilst their precise method of action is not known exactly, they all increase the strength and longevity of an immune response to a particular immunogen. It is thought that this effect may be achieved in one or more of the following ways increasing the effective size of the immunogen enhancing the persistence of the immunogen activating cells such as macrophages and lymphocytes.

Preventive Implications For The 21st Century

CHD often strikes without warning One in five coronary attacks presents as sudden death, and two-thirds of the deaths occur in the community too precipitously to be brought under medical attention. While some strokes may give warning by transient ischemic attacks, most do not. Even when they do, intervention at that stage does not necessarily avoid a permanently damaging stroke or prolong life. Heart valves damaged by degenerative and rheumatic heart disease and infective endocarditis can be repaired surgically or replaced by prosthetic appliances this approach often requires potentially dangerous anticoagulants to prevent emboli, and valve failure and hemolysis are distressingly common. Although such patients live longer, more comfortable lives than formerly, their survival does not approach that of patients with rheumatic fever who have been kept from progressing to severe valve damage by antibiotic prophylaxis against recurrent disease. Hypertension that pro-gresses to target-organ...

Tracking and Studying Birds in the Field

Populations, mortality rates, longevity, migration routes and times, sex ratios, and age distributions. Some banders study avian parasites and sequences of feather molting. Hunters and the general public also contribute valuable information when they report dead banded birds.

Economic Growth and Modernization

A key factor in the global coverage of the obesity epidemic, particularly with respect to developing and transition countries, is economic growth. Rapid urbanization, changing occupational structures and shifts in dietary structure related to socioeconomic transition all affect population mean BMI. Demographic shifts associated with higher life expectancy and reduced fertility rates, as well as shifts in patterns of disease away from infection and nutrient deficiency towards higher rates of non-communicable diseases, are other components of this so-called 'transition'.

Immunoinformatics in improving transplantation outcomes

Renal failure is an increasing problem around the world, with a rising incidence largely due to the rising incidence of type 2 diabetes. Although dialysis is a short-term solution, renal transplantation remains the optimum solution both for restoring quality of life and for increasing life expectancy of patients. A major limitation to renal transplantation is the supply of donor kidneys. Although success rates from renal transplantation continue to improve, a significant number of donor kidneys continue to be lost due to rejection or recurrent disease. Consequently, a significant number of renal transplant recipients require a second or subsequent graft. The ability to improve the graft success rate and thereby reduce the number of patients requiring multiple grafts would both improve patient outcomes and increase availability of donor kidneys for primary recipients.

Estimating the Range of BMI Associated with Minimal Mortality

Estimating the point of BMI associated with minimal mortality rate (i.e. the 'optimal' BMI) and the range around the point that still represents 'reasonable' BMIs for people is a challenging task involving empirical, statistical and conceptual issues. The empirical issue concerns the fact that the BMIs associated with minimal mortality seem to vary with subject characteristics such as age, sex, and race as described elsewhere in this chapter and may also vary as a function of other factors such as genotype. However, beyond the factors of age and sex, knowledge is very limited. Therefore, just as separate standards for BMI ranges associated with greater longevity are sometimes produced for men and women and people of different ages, perhaps the future will bring separate standards for people depending on other factors including ethnicity or genotype. Until greater information is available about genetic modifiers of the BMI-mortality relation, family history may be a useful proxy. For...

Eliminating Early Deaths Rationale

In prospective studies of the BMI-mortality relationship it has become standard to analyze data without those cohort members who have died early (e.g. within the first 5 years of follow-up) as a means of controlling for confounding from pre-existing diseases. The rationale originates from the observation that many serious illnesses lead to both weight loss and an increased risk of death. Therefore, preexisting occult disease could confound the BMI-mortality relation and lead spuriously to an apparent increase in the rate of mortality among persons with low BMIs. Thus, many reports have asserted the need to eliminate these confounding deaths by simply disregarding those persons who die early in the follow-up and analyze only those deaths that are less likely to have resulted from pre-existing morbidities. The practice of excluding early deaths in the study of longevity and obesity requires that cohort members who have died in the first 'k years' of follow-up be completely excluded from...

An Introduction to Enzymes

Much of the history of biochemistry is the history of enzyme research. Biological catalysis was first recognized and described in the late 1700s, in studies on the digestion of meat by secretions of the stomach, and research continued in the 1800s with examinations of the conversion of starch to sugar by saliva and various plant extracts. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur concluded that fermentation of sugar into alcohol by yeast is catalyzed by ferments. He postulated that these ferments were inseparable from the structure of living yeast cells this view, called vitalism, prevailed for decades. Then in 1897 Eduard Buchner discovered that yeast extracts could ferment sugar to alcohol, proving that fermentation was promoted by molecules that continued to function when removed from cells. Frederick W. K hne called these molecules enzymes. As vitalistic notions of life were disproved, the isolation of new enzymes and the investigation of their properties advanced the science of biochemistry.

The Financial Social And Psychological Costs Of Coronary Heart Disease

Coronary heart disease is one ofthe most common cause of death in the world and is becoming increasingly widespread as life expectancy increases. It consumes a lot of a country's economy due to lost income and health benefits when young people can no longer work the costs of treatment - medicines and operations -are expensive.

The Effect of Smoking

Smoking is thought typically to be a major con-founder of the BMI-mortality relation and to contribute artifactually to the elevated mortality rate at the low end of the BMI continuum. This is hypothesized because smoking strongly increases mortality rate and also has an inverse association with adiposity (4). If this is so, then failure to control for the effects of smoking might help account for the overall J- or U-shaped association typically observed. If it were established that smoking consistently confounds the BMI-mortality association, it would suggest that studies that have not controlled for the effects of smoking would have systematically underestimated the deleterious effect of high BMIs and overestimated the deleterious effect of low BMIs on longevity. Table 3.1 summarizes recent studies that investigated whether smoking confounds the BMI-mortality association. As can be

What the Available Data Show

The above conclusions can be used to guide future research investigating the effect of variations in relative body weight on longevity. Collectively, they suggest that measures of body composition should be used over measures of body weight whenever possible, that subjects dying during the first several years not be excluded from the analysis, that measures of either body composition or relative body weight can be treated as continuous variables, that statistical methods can be used to estimate the BMI (or degree of adiposity) associated with minimum mortality, and, finally, that alternative methods be pursued to reduce the possibility of confounding due to occult disease (e.g. more careful clinical evaluation at baseline). However, what the data show and what the data mean are not necessarily the same thing. Because the association between BMI and mortality is U-shaped does not mean that the causal relationship between BMI and mortality is U-shaped. As we have shown, the fact that...

What Questions Do We Hope To Address With Our Statistical Analysis

Finding physiological differences between populations is probably the most frequent aim of biomedical research. For example, researchers may want to know if there is a difference in life expectancy between overweight and underweight people. Or, a pharmaceutical company may want to determine if one type of antibiotic is more effective in combating bacteria than another. Or, a physician wonders if diastolic blood pressure is reduced in a group of hypertensive subjects after the consumption of a pressure-reducing drug. Most often, biomedical researchers are comparing populations of people or animals that have been exposed to two or more different treatments or diagnostic tests, and they want to know if there is difference between the responses of the populations that have received different treatments or tests. Sometimes, we are drawing multiple samples from the same group of subjects or experimental units. A common example is when the physiological data are taken before and after some...

Medial Release for Fixed Varus Deformity

Pictures The Proximal Mcl

Success and longevity of total knee arthroplasty is predicated in part on achieving proper limb alignment of 5 to 10 degrees of valgus.1 The limb should be corrected to this ideal alignment without regard to the contralateral alignment, because a varus deformity often exists bilaterally. Furthermore, the ideal alignment of the femoral component is 7 2 degrees of valgus angulation, whereas that of the tibial component is 90 2 degrees relative to the longitudinal axis of the tibia.1

Application guidelines

Nearest neighbour and clustering approaches to data analysis are some of the oldest described in this book. As such, they have found a huge number of applications in academia and industry ranging from the sciences and engineering to more abstract problems. In addition to their longevity, each of these techniques benefits from simplicity. For the most basic techniques, a nearest neighbour or clustering approach can be implemented very easily, as the algorithms themselves are simple and can be applied directly to the data. There are few complex transformations to be done. A good reference here is Sami Kaski's web page It comes as no surprise that bioinformatics has also made full use of these

How old are the cells from rock salt

For the haloarchaeal isolates, then it becomes necessary to explain the biological mechanisms for such extreme longevity. Grant et al. (1998) discussed several possibilities, such as the formation of resting stages other than spores since haloarchaea are not known to form spores or the maintenance of cellular functions with traces of carbon and energy sources within the salt, which would imply an almost infinitely slow metabolism.

P Habibovic F Barrere and K De Groot

The increase of life expectancy goes along with partial or full degradation of tissues and organs. The needs and advances in repair are therefore in continuous expansion. One of the examples in which a continuous development is visible is bone repair. Natural material sources are mainly utilized for bone repair. The source of these materials can be found in patient himself (autografting), in a donor (allografting) or in animals (xenografting). Autografts are the most favorable repairing materials. However, solely small volumes can be transferred from the donor site to the defect, and two surgical procedures are required. Allografting and xenografting are restricted by facts of limited supply, potential of disease transmission and host rejection. In addition, grafting can alter the initial properties of the implant, decreasing the quality of a graft. In order to overcome disadvantages of different kinds of grafts, new materials are continuously being synthesized by learning from...

Inhibitors of Reverse Transcriptase Zidovudine and Homologs

Early clinical trials in 1986 indicated that after several weeks of treatment with zidovudine advanced AIDS patients survived longer, experienced fewer and less severe opportunistic infections, temporarily regained helper T cells and DTH capability, displayed reduced levels of HIV core antigen (p24) in the blood, and generally felt better, as measured on the Karnofsky scale of well-being. However, progress of the disease is not arrested, and life expectancy is generally extended for only a year or two. The tendency now is to institute therapy much earlier, even prophylactically in seropositive individuals before symptoms become apparent, with a view to continuing medication for life. This raises major problems of (1) long-term toxicity and (2) emergence of drug-resistant mutants.

Relationship Between Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Extension of Average Life Expectancy Anti-aging Properties of Obesity Prevention The extension of average life expectancy and the potential for extension of maximal lifespan raise the possibility that, as in rodents, calorie restriction in non-human primates exerts an anti-aging effect which is separate from and in parallel with the anti-disease effects so clearly already demonstrated (83). The mechanisms by which such anti-aging effects of obesity prevention are achieved are, as yet, unknown. However, several such potential mechanisms are under study in rodents as well as in nonhuman primates. In rodents, a reduction in mitochondrial oxidative damage during aging has been found with calorie restriction (84). Examination of differential gene expression in rodents with and without calorie restriction has indicated a marked reduction in the stress response and a lower expression of a number of metabolic genes in the calorie-restricted group (85).

Developments In Pacing Technology

Pacing occurs when a stimulus creates an electrical field at the interface between the pacing catheter and the adjacent myocardium. A wave of depolarization is created, which spreads across the heart and leads to myocardial contraction by means of excitation-contraction coupling. The earliest pacemakers were relatively primitive devices that produced pacing stimuli at regular intervals (at a rate that was preset by the manufacturer), but were not able to detect the heart's intrinsic rhythm. These fixed-rate pacemakers were soon supplanted by demand pacing units, equipped with circuitry to sense the local electrogram associated with intrinsic QRS complexes. As technology was further refined, dual-chamber pacing, rate-responsiveness, and program-mability were added to the armamentarium. The current generation of permanent pacemakers is powered by lithium batteries that may last as long as 12 yr. Traditionally, the amplitude (voltage) has been programmed to twice the threshold level to...

Radiation exposure in children

The biological effects of ionizing radiation exposure from devices are important. It is generally accepted that there is no minimal threshold that can be said to be harmful. In practice, it is recommended that radiation levels be kept down to the lowest practicable level. One cannot say there is a safe dose. Children are considerably more sensitive to radiation than adults. With a longer life expectancy, children have a larger window of opportunity for radiation effects, namely carcinogenic risk 66 . One needs to assess lifetime risk and understand the genetic and carcinogenetic effects on children 67 . Of recent concern is the increasing use of pediatric computed tomography (CT), an invaluable tool for imaging children, especially those who are younger, sick, and less cooperative. CT has been useful in the evaluation of head trauma patients and delineating abnormal lesions, especially soft tissues areas. However, with increasing numbers of CT imaging being performed, the quantitative...

North American Wild Horses

Herds can expand to hundreds of zebras. Typically passive animals, male zebras occasionally fight for females during breeding season by kicking, biting, and shoving each other. Female zebras attain sexual maturity at age three and usually reproduce annually throughout their lives, while males reach breeding age at five years. Gestation lasts approximately eleven to thirteen months, and twins are rarely foaled. The life span of wild zebras can extend to twenty-two years, and zebras kept in captivity can live longer.

THE bare lymphocyte syndrome

Symptoms start during the first year of life and affected individuals suffer from recurrent chest infections and chronic diarrhoea. The lack of T cell immunity means that patients may suffer from a range of viral infections (including meningitis and hepatitis) and autoimmune phenomena. Affected individuals do not have a great life expectancy - the mean age at death in one survey was 4 years - with the main cause of death being viral infection. Treatment by bone marrow transplantation has greatly improved the chances of long-term survival success being affected by the presence of pre-existing viral infections.

Lvrs Surgical Approaches

Surgical approaches to lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) continue to evolve and be debated along with the broader questions of the longevity, cost effectiveness, optimal selection criteria of this operation. Otto Brantigan's pioneering, and perhaps premature, work in LVRS described resection of 30 of the hyperinflated lung by thoracotomy (1). However, at that time, advanced stapling devices, thoracic anesthesia, and intensive care practices were still in evolution and his patients succumbed to an unacceptably high mortality. Renewed acceptance of the procedure was heralded by the work of Cooper et al. (2), who reported dramatic improvements in pulmonary function in patients undergoing bilateral simultaneous volume reduction surgery by median sternotomy, with resection of 30 ofthe each lung. Since then, surgeons have proven that the procedure can be performed safely and effectively either by sternotomy or by thoracoscopy.

Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Of Colorectal Cancer

Second to liver, the peritoneum is the most frequent site of metastases in colorectal cancer. In approximately 10 of patients, peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is already present at the time of initial diagnosis (1). PC is found in 30 of patients with recurrent colorectal cancer, either as part of more generalized metastases or as the only site. PC is the only site of tumor activity in 40 of cases (2). This means that approximately 8 of all colorectal cancer patients will have PC as their only site of cancer activity at some stage of their disease. PC is generally considered to represent distant metastasis and is staged as M1. Accordingly, until recently, treatment has been limited to palliative surgery, such as enterostomy or bypass to relieve obstruction, and systemic chemotherapy. There are few studies specifically reporting on the outcome of this approach in PC (3). Most studies on chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer include all sites of metastases, with a dominance of...

Pathogenic Mechanisms

In most but not all cervical cancers viral DNA persists in an integrated state, whereas premalignant clinical lesions commonly contain exclusively episomal DNA (97). Integration of the viral episome usually destroys its structural integrity, resulting in a partial dysregulation of viral oncogene transcription that results in part from upstream cellular enhancers, in part also from increased longevity of chimeric transcripts, encoding E6 and E7, but also flanking cellular sequences (59,98). Integration seems to occur during the transition to high-grade lesions and seems to be partially

Geneexpression profiles in the life cycle

Figure 5.8 Model for endocrine regulation of longevity in (a) C. elegans, (b) D. melanogaster, and (c) Mus musculus, showing how environmental cues are translated into neuroendocrine signals, acting upon an insulin IGF signalling pathway and triggering a variety of hormonal responses, including steroid responses. The ultimate effect is that different priorities are given to gonad versus soma that is, reproduction and growth versus aging. CNS, central nervous system FSH, follicle-stimulating hormone GC, germ-line cells GH, growth factor 20HE, 20-hydroxy-ecdysone INR, insulin receptor IPC, insulin-producing cells IR IGF-1R, insulin receptor IGF-1 receptor LH, luteinizing hormone SG, somatic gonad tissue TSH, thyroid-stimulating hormone T3, 3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine T4, thyroxine. Reprinted with permission from Tatar et al. (2003). Copyright 2003 AAAS.

Historical background

Life expectancy in the United States, 1900-1960 showing the impact of the 1918 It has been estimated that the influenza epidemic of 1918 killed 675,000 Americans, including 43,000 servicemen mobilized for World War I 12 . The impact was so profound as to depress average life expectancy in the U.S. by more than 12 years, Fig. 1 24 , and may have played a significant role in ending the World War I conflict 12, 43 .

Adverse Consequences Of Low Testosterone Concentrations On Healthrelated Outcomes In Hivinfected Individuals

With muscle mass and exercise capacity in HIV-infected men (2), leading to the speculation that hypogonadism may contribute to muscle wasting and debility. Although patients with HIV infection may lose both fat and lean tissue, the loss of lean body mass is an important aspect of the weight loss associated with wasting. The magnitude of depletion of nonfat tissues is an important determinant of the time of death in AIDS (42,43). In addition, fat-free mass is an important correlate of the health-related quality of life in HIV-infected individuals and in older men and women. There is also a high prevalence of sexual dysfunction in HIV-infected men (44,45). With the increasing life expectancy of HIV-infected men, frailty and sexual dysfunction have emerged as important quality-of-life issues.

Patients Unsuitable For Strict Control

In practice, however, there are patients in whom attempts to achieve a near normal glycated haemoglobin are not appropriate (Box 8.2). Patients with advanced complications, especially retinopathy, have not been shown to benefit and a sudden improvement in glycaemic control may cause acceleration in severity of pre-proliferative or early proliferative retinopathy (Hanssen et al., 1986). Although some authorities claim that this should not be a contraindication to improving glycaemic control (Chantelau and Kohner, 1997), as yet there is no real evidence for benefit in advanced cases and the retinopathy should be treated appropriately before glycaemic control is intensified. Similarly, in patients with established renal impairment and severe macrovascular disease, attempts to treat elevated blood pressure and plasma lipids and to encourage patients to stop smoking may be more beneficial than targeting glycaemic control alone. As intensive insulin therapy is aimed at achieving benefit...

Antiinflammatory drugs

Pseudogout itself has no known effect on life expectancy associated diseases carry their own prognoses. Joint symptoms can be controlled by the treatment regimens outlined in section.VI. Patients with associated osteoarthritis may eventually require prosthetic joints if symptoms and disability become chronic and severe.

Understanding the Learning Process

Neurobiologists and geneticists learn more about these types of control, it is becoming increasingly evident that learning, at nearly all levels, may involve the same basic mechanisms and processes. In other words, the only difference between simple and complex behaviors may be the extent to which the learning is physically constrained by the biology of the animal. Thus, many invertebrates, by virtue of their simple body plan and specific sensory capabilities, are limited to simple learning experiences. Vertebrates, on the other hand, live longer and are not as rigorously programmed for specific kinds of behavior.

Life Span Limiters and Extenders

While each species has a theoretical maximum life span, few if any individual animals reach it. Three general influences limit longevity environmental pressures, variations in physiological processes, and heredity. Most domesticated species have longer life spans, frequently two times longer, than their wild relatives, and wild animals in captivity often live longer than in their natural habitat. The gray squirrel, for example, lives for three to six years in the wild, but from fifteen to twenty years in a zoo. The reason is clearly the safer, healthier, less stressful environment. Predators are one of the biggest threats in the wild, as are fluctuations in climate that affect the availability of food and shelter. Natural calamities such as hurricanes, wild fires, and earthquakes also take their toll. ternal structure is too damaged to function properly or if the cells turn cancerous. Loss of function by genes damaged during cell division (mitosis) or by environmental toxins can...

The Big the Old and the Immortal

Most species, including humans, grow to a maximum size and then stop. The longest attested life span for a person is 122 years, achieved by France's Jeanne Louise Calment, who died in 1997, followed by Japan's Shigechiyo Izumi, who died just short of 121 years in 1986. Despite theories relating large body mass to long life span, some big and small animals in the wild have about the same life expectancy The ecological theory draws conclusions about life span from a species' role in its environment. Small animals have faster metabolisms and live shorter lives, it is argued, because they are not likely to escape predators for very long. Therefore, they evolved to mature and reproduce rapidly. Large animals typically have more defenses against predators and can afford to take life slowly. Moreover, animals that evolve defensive armor, spines, or poison also avoid predation and live longer than related species that do not. Finally, species that evolve mechanisms to withstand environmental...

Additional observations

The use of interferon-alfa appears to predispose to autoimmune disease and serologic phenomena, particularly thyroid abnormalities. With its use in the treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma and as an antiretroviral agent, we might expect an increase in these features as patients live longer.

Antibody Responses Against Different Pathogenic Fungi

Roth and Janitschke demonstrated the formation of antibodies in mice, rats and rabbits immunized with different P. carinii antigens (Roth and Janitschke, 1991). Hyperimmune sera was highly effective at reducing the number of fungal organisms in early, intermediate, and advanced stages of PCP and was capable of increasing the mean life expectancy of infected mice (Roths and Sidman, 1993) and passive immunization with polyclonal antibodies in sera from animals that were allowed to recover from severe P. carinii pneumonia conferred protection to naive mice (Bartlett et al., 1998).

Natural history and indications for treatment

Intervene through its effects on the risk of treatment women fare less well than men following aneurysm repair, by open or endovascular means 5 . Life expectancy is important in assessing the value of elective AAA repair, because the patient has to live long enough for the cumulative risk of aneurysm rupture to exceed the immediate risks of intervention 6 .

Surgery vs endovascular treatment general considerations

Compared to open surgery, endovascular repair causes less physiological derangement 12,13 , perioperative mortality, perioperative morbidity, pain, and debility. These benefits are clearest in a patient whose large aneurysm precludes observation, and whose poor health precludes open surgery. The role of endovascular repair is less clear in a patient with a small aneurysm and good health, for whom the benefits depend on long life expectancy, durable protection from risk of rupture, and a low rate of late complications. As endovascular technique and technology have evolved, these factors have changed, and so have attitudes towards the respective roles of surgical and endovascular aneurysm repair 14,15 .

Johannes D Veldhuis MD Ali Iranmanesh MD and Daniel Keenan PhD

The aging process is marked by a relatively subtle short-term decline in reproductive hormone outflow in men. However, the nominal 0.8-1.3 annual fall in systemic bioavailability of testosterone results in a reduction of 30-50 by the sixth through eighth decades of life. Low testosterone concentrations forecast relative sarcopenia, osteopenia, visceral fat accumulation, detectable cognitive impairment, and variable mood depression. Accordingly, the mechanisms driving progressive androgen deprivation are important to understand. To this end, age-associated alterations in three dominant sites of physiological control, namely the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and testis, are highlighted. The cognate signals are gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone, which jointly determine androgen availability via feedback and feedforward adaptations. According to this emergent notion, no single gland acts in isolation to maintain homeostasis. An integrative...

Stressactivated protein kinase signalling pathways

The principle of a signal transduction pathway was introduced in Chapter 5. An extensively discussed system in that chapter was the insulin IGF receptor, which proved to be associated with the regulation of longevity in various animals. The insulin-signalling pathway relays a hormonal signal into a cellular response, via a cascade of molecular interactions, eventually leading to inac-tivation of a transcription factor. We saw the same principle in the TOR and Ras pathways acting upon body size in insects and in the phytochrome signalling pathway regulating shade avoidance in plants. The principle of signal transduction is also employed in one of the most elaborate stress-responsive systems, the mitogen-activated

Introduction and background

Interests in aging and senescence have characterized human thought since the earliest of recorded histories. Ancient Egyptian papyri and Chinese medical treatises, along with the writings of Aristotle and Socrates, describe various aspects of senescence and chronic degenerative conditions. They also detail methods for halting the insidious loss of function that accompanies longevity. Thoughts of mortality and immortality likely characterized the minds of our earliest Homo ancestors as well. The search for ways to halt the functional losses associated with growing old continues today. Humans are a long-lived species by any available standard. We are also unusual in that we remember our past and worry about the future characteristics that we may share with a few other long-lived species or that may set us apart from all other species on earth. Long life provides ample time and opportunity to observe and remark on differences in longevity and vitality among relatives, friends, and...

Changing demographics of the elderly in the general population

Urothelial cancer is likely to affect a more elderly population. The increasing life expectancy in the general population and an increased and more prolonged exposure to urothelial carcinogens could produce a substantial increase in the number of muscle-invasive bladder cancers we will see in the elderly in the future. the risk of death at younger ages has decreased such that the proportion of a birth cohort surviving to old age has increased. Thus a growth rate of 1 will permit a doubling of the population in 70 years.7 Both birth rates and death rates have shifted to more stable lower levels, resulting in population ageing and increased longevity. Between 1900 and 1992, females had a 25 decrease in death rates, while males had a 33 decrease.6 Since 1900, age-adjusted death rates have decreased by 40 in males and by 60 in females. Life expectancy was 48 years for females and 46 years for males in 1900. In 1992 it was 79.5 years for females and 72.5 years for males. Persons reaching...

Neuroimaging studies for the diagnosis of carotid stenosis

In the near future the development of higher resolution MRI, new contrast materials and biomark-ers for detecting chronic inflammatory changes in patients with substantial atherosclerotic disease will improve the assessment of patients at risk for ische-mic events 62 , 69 , 12 , 70 . However, at this time the indication for CEA depends on the patient's co-morbidity, life expectancy, gender, symptoms and the degree of carotid stenosis measured by appropriate imaging studies. Precise measurement of the degree of carotid stenosis is essential to decide which patient benefits the most from CEA.

Can Financial Pressures Cause Stress

Financial pressures are common and maybe a particular source ofworry, stress, depression, and potential heart problems in people who are about to retire or who have retired. This is because they may not have a pension or an insufficient pension to survive. The problem has become worse because life expectancy has increased over the last generation.

Modelling Tumour Polyclonality and Cell Mutation

With the exception of the last section we have assumed that the tumour cell population is homogeneous involving only one cell type. In spite of the good quantitative comparison with data, such as regards life expectancy after resection, in the last section we saw that variable sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs exhibited by gliomas necessitated a model with tumour cell heterogeneity. Gliomas are known to be heterogeneous (polyclonal) with heterogeneity generally increasing with grade. The more malignant cells are believed to have a stronger propensity to mutate thus increasing heterogeneity. Therefore, we expect to see different types of cells within the tumour (for example, Pilkington 1992). The basic model can be extended to consider the case of a polyclonal tumour as we saw in the last section by simply creating two (or more) cell populations within the tumour that may have different diffusivity and growth rates. In the model equation (11.3) (the homogeneous tissue situation)...

Agingrelated Memory Decline

As most people over the age of 60 will attest, a decline in learning and memory is a part of the normal aging process (see reference 1 for a review). Most noticeable in humans is the decline in hippocampus-dependent forms of memory, the learning and remembering of new names, recent events, and even spatial information. For the most part, in normal individuals, these memory deficits are not debilitating, but they are quite noticeable because they are involved so directly in human conscious behavior. Superimposed upon the normal aging process can be much more dramatic insults to the human capacity for hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. These can arise for a number of reasons stroke, vascular problems, psychiatric disorders, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease principally among them. These all can lead to dementia much more pronounced than ever occurs with normal aging. The focus of this chapter will be dementia of the Alzheimer's type. AD is the most common of the...

Cancer the genetics of aberrant cell number regulation

A basic article of faith in genetic analysis is that we learn a great deal about biology, both normal and diseased, by studying the properties of mutations that disrupt normal processes. It has certainly been true in regard to cancer. It has become clear that virtually all cancers of somatic cells arise owing to a series of special mutations that accumulate in a cell. Some of these mutations alter the activity of a gene others simply eliminate the gene's activity. Cancer-promoting mutations fall into a few major categories those that increase the ability of a cell to proliferate, those that decrease the susceptibility of a cell to apoptosis, or those that increase the general mutation rate of the cell or its longevity, so that all mutations, including those that encourage proliferation or apoptosis, are more likely to occur. Improvements in diagnosis and treatment of cancers have been dramatic, but, though some battles have been won, we are a very long way from declaring victory in...

Simple Model for the Spatial Spread of an Epidemic

We consider here a simpler version of the epidemic model discussed in detail in Chapter 10, Volume I, Section 10.2. We assume the population consists of only two populations, infectives I (x, t ) and susceptibles S(x, t ) which interact. Now, however, I and S are functions of the space variable x as well as time. We model the spatial dispersal of I and S by simple diffusion and initially consider the infectives and susceptibles to have the same diffusion coefficient D. As before we consider the transition from susceptibles to infectives to be proportional to rSI, where r is a constant parameter. This form means that rS is the number of susceptibles who catch the disease from each infective. The parameter r is a measure of the transmission efficiency of the disease from infectives to susceptibles. We assume that the infectives have a disease-induced mortality rate al 1 a is the life expectancy of an infective. With these assumptions the basic model mechanism for the development and...

Lepidosauria and Squamata

Only surviving member of the order Rhyncho-cephalia, a diverse assembly that coexisted with dinosaurs. Restricted to roughly thirty small islands off the coast of New Zealand and well adapted to a cool climate, it demonstrates considerable longevity (approximately 120 years) but also has a low reproductive rate. It feeds primarily on insects and eggs and the young of sea birds or other tuataras, with which it shares burrows.

Lipid Lowering After Revascularization

Rosis progression in saphenous vein grafts in patients in the post-CABG trial identified current smoking, male sex, hypertension, elevated triglycerides, and low HDL as independent predictors of graft worsening (85). The importance of vein graft atherosclerosis in the diabetic population was graphically emphasized in BARI where the 7-year survival of diabetic patients treated with CABG using only saphenous vein grafts was only 54 compared to 83 for patients receiving at least one LIMA graft (see Fig. 6). It is clear, based on BARI and previously reported work (22,34), that diabetics after CABG have a reduced longevity compared to nondiabetics, especially when dependent on saphenous vein grafts. Aggressive measures are indicated in all post-CABG patients to reduce serum LDL, elevate HDL, control blood pressure, lower triglycerides, and strongly encourage smoking cessation. The effects of rigorous glycemic control on cardiac events post-CABG have not been carefully studied.

Introduction To Survival Data

In a clinical trial, an investigator may want to compare a survival curve for a treatment group with one for a control group to determine whether the treatment is associated with increased longevity one of the notable examples arises from the area of cancer treatment studies, which focus on five-year survival rates after treatment. A new, specialized area in survival analysis is the estimation of cure rates. The investigator may believe that a certain percentage of patients will be cured by a treatment and, thus, uses survival analysis to estimate the cure rate. Section 15.2.4 will cover cure rate models that use a modification to the survival curve.

Possible Functions of Sleep

Besides the vigilance model, there are three other models which try to explain across-species and across-age differences in sleep. One of these suggests that sleep is necessary for learning. Since large animals generally live longer than small animals, they typically have a greater capacity for learning. Likewise, for a given size animal, predatory species typically rely more on learning, while prey species rely more on instinct. (A prey animal who makes a mistake is dead, whereas a predatory animal who makes a mistake can always try again.) According to this model, larger animals and predatory animals not only can afford to sleep long and deeply, they actually need more sleep in order to process and encode information. This model also accounts for the facts that

Risk factors for hip implant

Aseptic necrosis, also referred to as osteonecrosis or avascular necrosis, of the femoral head is another important underlying pathology that can result in the need for artificial hip replacement. The causes of aseptic necrosis are truly legion, including anemia, corticosteroid use, ethanol abuse, pancreatitis, and trauma. Many cases of aseptic necrosis are idiopathic as well 4 . Pavelka 5 has observed that the femoral head is a common site of osteonecrosis and that almost one-half of all cases of femoral head osteonecrosis require hip arthroplasty. The mean age of patients with aseptic necrosis of the femoral head is far lower than that of their counterparts with severe osteoarthritis of the hip. Aseptic necrosis patients are often near 40 years of age 6 . The life expectancy of such patients is substantially greater than the typical patient who receives an artificial hip secondary to osteoarthritis. Aseptic necrosis patients pose a greater clinical challenge, as they will be more...

Heterogeneities and dynamical complexities

Using an individual-based simulation model of polygynous mating systems, Thrall et al. (2000) examined how variance in male mating success (i.e. mating skew) affects the spread of STDs, and how this interacts with longevity and the migration of females among mating groups. Their model assumed that males varied in their attractiveness to females, that females had only one mate per breeding season, and that females could change groups between breeding seasons. Two mating system parameters were examined variation in male mating success (degree of polygyny) and variation in female fidelity to males (dispersal to new groups between mating systems). When females moved frequently among groups, variance in male mating success had a weaker effect on prevalence of infection in females. When intergroup movement was limited, parasites spread more rapidly and reached higher prevalence in groups with more females (i.e. greater polygyny) (Fig 4.9).

HRQL after RPC in UC Patients

The relatively young age of such patients and their subsequent life expectancy imposed an accurate analysis of quality of life that became the measure of thefor efficiency of the procedure. . In fact the relatively young age of such patients and their subsequent life expectancy imposed an accurate analysis of quality of life that became the measure for efficiency of the procedure. So HRQL questionnaires are the indispensable instruments to assess the quality of surgery.

Cytokines In Noninfectious Central Nervous System Disease

AD is the most common form of dementia. The disease is characterized by progressive neurodegeneration associated with impairment of memory, deterioration of language skills, altered judgment, confusion, and restlessness. The incidence of AD increases with age, and the probability of developing the disease approximately doubles every 5 yr beyond the age of 65. Concerns exist that the personal and societal costs of AD may become staggering as life expectancy increases in developing countries. The causes of AD are not completely understood. Approximately 5 to 10 of AD cases are familial and linked to gene mutations, whereas the majority of cases are sporadic in nature. AD is characterized by brain atrophy resulting from loss of neurons and the presence of neurofibrillary tangles as well as amyloid plaques containing P-amyloid peptide (P-AP). This peptide has a tendency to aggregate and is highly insoluble (404,405).

The mechanistic framework

Indeed, collecting endless lists of genes and gene-expression profiles is not an aim in itself. In this chapter we discussed the necessity of linking genomics with hypothesis-driven research. In our opinion, gene-expression profiling makes sense only if the genes sooner or later can be positioned in an analytical framework that is grounded in physiological or biochemical knowledge. Even ecologists, if they take ecological genomics seriously, will have to get to grips with the mechanisms of the processes they study. We have seen that the most successful stories of ecological genomics discussed in Chapter 5, on longevity in C. elegans and flowering time in Arabidopsis, came from previous painstaking work in genetics and biochemistry. We argued in Chapter 2 that microarray-based transcription profiling should perhaps be viewed as just an exploratory instrument, or as only a stop on the way to some basic question, not as a goal in itself. We should avoid the...

Alternatives to Litigation

Most alternatives to litigation include an administrative system for determining damages that does not rely on case-by-case determinations with unfettered discretion. Scheduling damages refers to setting amounts or ranges prospectively to make compensation more predictable and fair. Several methods have been suggested. For example, the injured party's noneconomic damages could be fixed based on the severity of injury and the plaintiff's life expectancy (48). Other approaches, which can also be applied within the tort system, include giving juries or other decision makers information on similar past awards or funding service contracts for future necessary care in lieu of cash payments. In addition to optimizing compensation, scheduling damages could reduce administrative expenses by limiting the marginal payoff from additional litigation effort (9).

Technically a Visit is not Possible

Another frequently given explanation for the Fermi paradox is that the Milky Way is very large, and because spacecraft must travel well below the speed of light an expedition over great galactic distances is unrealistic because it would take too long. This thinking appears to be valid for low life expectancy civilizations, and is also correct for travel between galaxies, where for example a trip at half the speed of light to the Andromeda nebula would take more than 4 million years. Aside of severe energy problems with propulsion, the concept of a spacecraft traveling close to the speed of light is not very realistic because of the interstellar material in its flight path. At very high speed such material would become extremely dangerous, as its impact energy would rapidly increase with the speed of the ship. This restricts the travelling speed to values that are low enough, that obstacles can be located and evaded. As already mentioned in Chap. 9, a velocity of 20 of the light speed,...

Telomeres and Cell Division

Telomere And Dolly Sheep

Certain types of cells can be removed from the body and grown in nutrient solutions (outside the body, or in vitro). Under these artificial conditions, the potential longevity of different cell lines can be studied. For unknown reasons, normal connective tissue cells (called fibroblasts) stop dividing in vitro after a certain number of population doublings. Cells from a newborn will divide 80 to 90 times, while those from a 70-year-old will stop after 20 to 30 divisions. The decreased ability to divide is thus an indicator of senescence (aging). Cells that become transformed into cancer, however, apparently do not age and continue dividing indefinitely in culture.

The Future of Patch Clamp Electrophysiology

Patch Clamping Biochip

Since the invention of the technique, voltage-clamp has relied on the use of glass microelectrodes that must be maneuvered onto a cell to form a gigaOhm seal with its membrane. There are great difficulties in maintaining a seal on a very small cell sandwiched between a glass slide on a microscope stage and a glass pipette attached to a mechanical micromanipulator anchored a great distance away. Vibrations in the system can reduce the success and longevity of an experiment. There are also limitations to the resolution of small currents due to the arrangement of an electrode being held high above a cell, acting as an antenna for electrical noise. Further, the process of approaching and forming a seal onto a cell with a micromanipulator is tedious and requires an operator with a high level of training. Finally, the fabrication of microelectrodes from glass tubes has not yet achieved a high level of reliability and therefore there is much variation in the results from use to use.

Globoid Cell Leukodystrophy Krabbe Disease

Krabbe Disease Symptoms

Another therapeutic approach is one of substrate-reduction therapy. L-Cycloserine is an inhibitor of sphingosine synthesis by irreversible inhibition of 3-ketodyhydrosphingosine synthase. Administration of L-cycloserine to animals leads to a reduction in the production of brain cerebroside, sulfatide, and gan-gliosides. Although the level of psychosine has not been measured, it is likely that it is also lowered, since psychosine is made up of sphingosine and galactose. Thus,L-cycloserine lowers the levels of substrates that are not digested in GLD. Twitcher mice treated with L-cycloserine have milder disease and live longer, but only if the treatment is started early. If combined with

Botulinum Toxin and Fillers

Depressor Nasi Resection

The aging process produces a change in muscular behavior. Continuous contraction of specific muscles may lead to dermal alteration and produces static rhytides. For such wrinkles, BoNT-A is injected before the fillers indeed in some cases it may even be the only method required. In some cases, however, the dermis is so affected by both muscular hyperactivity and sun damage that fillers should also be used. Although the onset of the BoNT-A effect starts after 24-72 h, a period of 15 days must be respected before treatment with fillers is commenced. Experienced practitioners may inject both BoNT-A and fillers in the same session.

John M Mathis Wayne J Olan and Stephen M Belkoff

T12 Superior Endplate Compression

Pain relief after percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) has been reported by 70 to 90 of patients with vertebral compression fractures (VCFs),1-4 but the deformity of the vertebral body or the subsequent kyphosis (usually related to multiple compressions) has not been addressed (for a more exhaustive treatment of vertebroplasty see Chapter 14).5 Bio-mechanically, kyphosis shifts the patient's center of gravity forward, rendering the patient off-balance and at increased risk for a fall. This change in a patient's center of gravity also creates additional stress on the vertebrae, increasing the risk of fracture.6 The kyphosis caused by VCFs in the lumbar or thoracic region decreases vital capacity in the lungs, which in turn accentuates restrictive lung disease.7 Leech et al.8 reported a 9 average decrease in forced vital capacity per osteoporotic compression fracture in the thoracic region. In addition, these fractures can lead to gastrointestinal difficulties. Increasing kyphosis may cause...

Domenico Lio and Calogero Caruso Abstract

The process of life for the individual is the struggle to preserve its integrity. However, the preservation of the integrity of the organism comes with a price, systemic inflammation. Accordingly, ageing is associated with chronic, low-grade inflammatory activity and the major age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's diseases, Parkinson's diseases, atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes, are initiated or worsened by systemic inflammation, thus suggesting the critical importance of unregulated systemic inflammation in the shortening of survival. In the present review, the influence of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin(IL)-10 on these major age-related diseases development is reviewed in the light of the inflammation mechanisms involved in their pathogenesis. The experimental and clinical observations reported suggest that IL-10 may play a central role in protection against major age-related inflammatory diseases. So, typing of IL-10 functionally relevant polymorphisms might allow...

The Endoscopic Resection of Malignant Anterior Skull Base Tumors

Endoscopic Skull

No evidence exists, as yet, that supports the endoscopic debulking of tumors followed by radiotherapy. Craniofacial en bloc resection remains the gold standard that has increased life expectancy in skull base tumors (Howard and Lund, 1993). The integrity of the dura is critical in the management of this condition. A tumor invading the dura is associated with a poor prognosis, but thankfully the dura often forms a good barrier.

Why I Choose To Be Psw Essay

The desire to stave off death as long as possible is deeply rooted. We herald advances in medicine as successes because they enable us to meet a deep desire to live, and to postpone death as long as possible. Yet despite the enormous benefit of prolonging lives by medical means, in some cases prolonging life does not help the patient.

Typical Findings Indications for Tightening the Abdominal Wall

Bikini Incision

The limit of the indications for liposuction in the area of the abdomen hips is exceeded if either the skin is slack and cracked (severe cellulite) following pregnancies or all the skin of the lower abdomen is slackened as a result of the aging process or extreme weight loss.

The biodiversity and ecosystem functioning synthetic framework

Redundant Species Hypothesis

Second, there is an increasing awareness that biodiversity as such is not as important as biodiversity in relation to the properties of the species. That is, to evaluate the effects of diminishing species richness on ecosystem processes we must look at the biodiversity of species attributes in a community, not only at species numbers. As an example, consider the work by Walker et al. (1999), who investigated vegetation structure in Australian savannahs. The authors noted that dominant plant species in the same community tend to be positioned apart from each other when classified according to species-specific attributes, such as height, biomass, specific leaf area, longevity, and leaf-litter quality. Rare species may contribute

Metaphor as the Currency of Mind

Simply a figure of speech but is primarily a form of thought, a form of cognition. As metaphor is a mode of cognition, metaphor can function as an interpreter of unconscious memory. Our emotional and imaginative life is literally unthinkable apart from this unconscious metaphoric process. As the late novelist and philosopher Iris Murdoch observed, The development of consciousness in human beings is inseparably connected with the use of metaphor. Metaphors are not merely peripheral decorations or even useful models, they are fundamental forms of our condition (1970 my emphasis). Murdoch's reference to peripheral decorations is a specific allusion to Aristotle's concept of metaphors as merely peripheral decorations of language. For centuries, philosophers and linguists, following Aristotle, understood metaphor to be merely a figure of speech, a departure from literal meaning. Aristotle's theory of metaphor has had a remarkable longevity, as philosophers of language and linguists have...

Pollution Effects of Chemicals

Frogs and toads have been amazingly resilient throughout their evolution and hence have a wide distribution in ponds and swamps all over the planet. Their evolutionary longevity, however, appears to offer inadequate defense against the pollution to the environment brought about by human activities. During the 1990's, biologists around the world have documented an alarming decline in amphibian populations. Thousands of species of frogs, toads, and salamanders are experiencing dramatic decreases in numbers, and many have gone extinct or become endangered.

Classes of tumorsuppressor genes

The normal functions of tumor-suppressor genes fall into categories complementary to those of proto-oncogenes (see Table 17-1). Some tumor-suppressor genes encode negative regulators of the cell cycle, such as the Rb protein or elements of the TGF-p signaling pathway. Others encode positive regulators of apop-tosis (at least part of the function of p53 falls into this category). Still others are indirect players in cancer, with a normal role in the repair of damaged DNA or in controlling cellular longevity. We shall consider two examples here.

Phase I Study of rhIL7 in Humans

Adults diagnosed with incurable nonhematologic malignancy (except primary carcinoma of the lung) were included and standard phase I eligibility criteria such as life expectancy greater than 3 months, adequate Karnofsky performance status, heart, lung, liver, kidney, and marrow functions were required. In addition, a mean value of 4 peripheral CD3+ cell count determinations over a 2-week period was required to be above 300 mm3, with a coefficient of variation of less than 20 attesting to the stability of the peripheral lymphocyte count before therapy.

Mechanism and Causality

The mechanist view of life, the view taken by physiologists, holds that all phenomena, no matter how complex, can ultimately be described in terms of physical and chemical laws. In contrast, vitalism is the view that some vital force beyond physics and chemistry is required to explain life. The mechanist view has predominated in the twentieth century because virtually all information gathered from observation and experiment has agreed with it.

Radiation Therapy For Leptomeningeal Cancer

Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis occurs in approximately 5 of patients with cancer.1 The frequency of diagnosis is increasing as cancer patients live longer and neuro-imaging technology improves. Without treatment, the median survival is four to six weeks.2 The specific approach to treatment depends on the tumor type and burden, the patient's symptoms and overall performance status. Surgical management and chemotherapeutic treatment of leptomeningeal cancer have been addressed in previous chapters. Radiation therapy is also used in some patients to treat leptomeningeal cancer. Craniospinal irradiation (CSI), focal external beam radiation, and investigational radiation techniques will be discussed in this chapter. The primary rationale for considering radiotherapy is two-fold first, several patients present with significant symptoms such as cranial nerve palsies, sphincter dysfunction, limited ambulation, pain, obstructive hydrocephalus, etc., which benefit from palliative radiation...

Screening And Treatment Algorithms For Anal Hsil

The elements of an anal screening program would likely closely resemble that of the cervix. Anal cytology and high-resolution anoscopy would be performed as described previously (107). In the author's opinion, all patients with abnormal anal cytology, including those with ASCUS, should be referred for high-resolution anoscopy. Areas that appear suspicious for HSIL should be biopsied as described previously (122). There is currently no accepted standard of care for treatment of ASIL, and the medical literature is very limited on this subject. As with cervical lesions, only patients with HSIL should be routinely recommended for treatment, particularly those with the most advanced forms such as severe dysplasia. We do not routinely recommend treatment of low-grade lesions because of the high likelihood of pain associated with the treatment, high recurrence rate, and low risk of progression to cancer. However, many patients do opt for therapy to relieve symptoms associated with the...

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Primarily Originates in the Target Tissue

Acute Complications Diabetes Mellitus

Chronic Secondary Complications of Diabetes. With good control of their disease, most persons with diabetes can avoid the acute complications described above however, it is rare that they will not suffer from some of the chronic secondary complications of the disease. In most instances, such complications will ultimately lead to reduced life expectancy.

Mathematical appendix

And for which one must make some sort of decision in advance are not repeatable, at least they are not exactly repeatable. Predictions of the weather, the course of market prices, one's employability, and one's longevity are examples of events, the probability of which one must perforce have some knowledge in order to make the best of certain possible decisions.

And Laboratory Investigations

IRD is the mildest variant of the three mentioned disorders. The disease is usually not manifest at birth but presents itself within the first 6 months of life with psychomotor retardation, minor facial dysmor-phism, mild hypotonia, sensorineural deafness, and visual impairment with retinal pigmentary degeneration, optic dysplasia, and nystagmus. Hepatomegaly and failure to thrive with growth retardation are common. Seizures occur but epilepsy is not as severe as in ZS. Many patients are able to sit and walk independently after several years, whereas others never acquire these abilities. The gait is usually ataxic and broad-based, and cognitive function in the severely retarded range. Life expectancy is considerably longer than in ZS and NALD, up to more than 2 decades.

Pickerel Grass and Redfin

Chain Pickerel Freshwater Fish

Of a pound in weight the redfin pickerel generally grows faster and slightly longer than the grass pickerel. The alltackle world record for the grass pickerel is a 1-pound Indiana fish for the redfin pickerel, the record is a 1-pound, 15-ounce New York fish. They can live up to 8 years, although they usually live 5 years or less. Females live longer and grow larger than males.

Medical considerations for treatments for invasive bladder cancer in the elderly

Deterioration in physiologic function, prolonged exposure to deleterious and damaging substances, and the consequent co-morbidities associated with ageing may affect considerations of various treatment approaches for invasive bladder cancer in the elderly. Therapeutic efficacy, side-effects, potential complications, and effects on overall quality of life are all important factors in this context. In addition, various individual host factors (life expectancy, co-morbid conditions, physiologic reserve, and psychologic and environmental support) can also affect considerations in therapy. The importance of these considerations is based upon the assumption that cystectomy offers the best opportunity for curing muscle-infiltrative transitional cell cancer of the bladder. This impression is supported by observations of an increased likelihood of regional and distant disease recurrence in those patients who undergo alternative treatments and whose longevity and disease-free survival may be...

Cardiovascular Diseases In The United States And Prevention Approaches

The large and long-term decline in mortality from the cardiovascular diseases accounted for almost 4 of the 5.6-year increase in life expectancy in the United States attained between 1965 and 1995.1 The 55 percent decline in the age-corrected death rate for total cardiovascular disease between 1950 and 1996 indicates the extent to which these leading causes of death are subject to preventive and therapeutic measures. These diseases, however, still account for 41 percent of all deaths and are leading causes of morbidity and health care utilization. Control of these diseases should focus on prevention because of its inherent benefits, its apparent role in the mortality reductions, and its potential given the presence of modifiable risk factors in millions of Americans.

The Time Specific Approach

The survivorship of long-lived species, such as large mammals, is really impossible to determine by the methods given above. Because of their sheer longevity, one could not expect a scientist to be willing to wait decades or centuries until the last member of a cohort dies. Demographers attempt to overcome this problem by using the age distribution of organisms that are alive at one time to infer cohort survivorship. This is often termed a horizontal or time-specific approach, as opposed to the vertical or age-specific approach that requires repeated observations of a single cohort. For example, one might construct a time-specific survivorship curve for a population of fish by live-trapping a sufficiently large sample, counting the rings on the scales on each individual (which for many species is correlated with the age in years), and then determining the number of one-year-olds, two-year-olds, and so on. Typically, demographers who use age distributions to infer age-specific...

Managing And Following Patients

In general, ICD pulse generators have 3-6-yr longevity depending on usage. The programmer allows evaluation of battery status. As the device approaches the elective replacement interval (ERI), follow-up visits should be intensified. In general, once the device reaches ERI, it will operate normally for at least 3 mo, depending upon frequency of therapy. Capacitor deformation occurs during periods when no shocks are delivered, and will result in longer charge times as well as decreased battery longevity. Current ICDs perform an automatic capacitor re-formation that charges the capacitors and delivers the energy to an internal test load. This function improves subsequent charge times and battery longevity. Capacitor re-formations should be conducted manually every 3-6 mo if they are not automatically conducted.

The structure of this book

In Chapter 4 the genomics approach is used to discuss a question fundamental to community ecology, of how biodiversity supports ecosystem function. Most of the examples in this chapter are taken from microbial ecology. We review the ways in which microbiologists use genomics to estimate species diversity in the environment and how functions of uncultured species can be reconstructed from environmental genomes. Life-history patterns. Chapter 5 discusses the geno-mic aspects of life-history evolution, an important theme in population ecology. Questions of longevity, reproductive effort, sex, and diapause are discussed, as well as the issue of trade-offs between life-history traits. We show that progress in mechanistic studies of plasticity and optimal timing of reproduction has considerable relevance to ecology.

Genomic approaches to lifehistory patterns an appraisal

Environmental information (food, crowding, light, daylength, temperature) often modulates life-history traits and this is the basis of phenotypic plasticity. In animals, such information is typically processed by the nervous system, then translated into a hormonal signal, which acts upon signalling pathways to steer gene expressions in target cells. Signalling pathways consist of a membrane-bound extracellular receptor, connected to an intracellular system of kinases, able to trigger a cascade of biochemical events, finally leading to activation of a transcription factor, which then triggers gene expression. The involvement of the insulin signalling pathway in regulating growth, reproduction, and longevity is a prime example of this principle, but also the induction of insect diapause and the developmental switches in polyphenisms act similarly. In plants, phytochromes play a major role in the translation of light signals. C. elegans show that it is possible to uncouple part of this...

Salamanders And Newts

Extending into South America Habitat Many habitats, including forests, savannas, prairies, freshwater ponds and streams, and ephemeral pools Gestational period Varies among species species that breed in ponds have larval stages that last two to six months, whereas the larval stage of stream-breeding species may last several years Life span Varies among species larger species tend to live longer than smaller ones large aquatic salamanders have lived for fifty to fifty-five years in captivity Special anatomy Long body with long tail and four legs some species are legless

Discussion general considerations in the comparison of AneuRx outcomes with literature controls

Also, the Medtronic study excluded the highest-risk patients. In particular, the AneuRx study excluded the following high-risk categories 51 American Society of Anesthesiology grade above IV (for some phases of the study, and grade IV and above for other phases) morbid obesity acute renal failure or chronic dialysis active systemic infection 1 year of life expectancy leaking aneurysm aortic dissection aorto-iliac occlusive disease and extension of the aneurysm into the iliac arteries.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics

Not terminally ill, inactive pacemaker candidates, in general, but relatively independent, physically functional candidates who frequently died abruptly. It appeared that the physical, mental, and life expectancy factors recommended for consideration by expert guidelines for the implantation of cardiac pacemakers were generally applied to persons in this group 76 .

The core of lifehistory theory

If the abundance of a species does not depend on the number of offspring, why are there such large differences between species in reproductive styles That such differences exist is obvious. The mathematical biologist A.J. Lotka distinguished between the 'lavish type' and the 'economical type' (Lotka 1924). Many marine animals, including Darwin's slug, obviously belong to the first type, whereas humans, with their low birth rate and long lifespan, are an example of the second type. Also within relatively homogeneous groups of organisms large differences between species may exist. For example, in birds clutch size varies from one egg in petrels and condors up to 20 eggs in pheasants and partridges. Likewise, among lizards the number of eggs laid in a season varies per species from 2 to 20. An even more extreme variation may be observed among plant species. This diversity in reproductive output across species is usually positively correlated with juvenile mortality rate and negatively...

Basic Models of Health and Disease

All of this invokes the well-known and long-standing problem of the concept of disease. The labyrinthine subtleties of the recent debate, spanning a period of more than three decades, cannot, and need not, be explored in detail here.175 It is obvious that a concept of disease must fulfill different functions in different contexts of both theory and practice. Consequently, it may also assume different meanings according to the respective context in which it appears.176 For our current purposes, we need, on a very abstract level, a concept of disease which allows us to elucidate the criteria by which we can define the proper limits of medicine as a system of public health (or, on the macro-level, a system of organised medical services). This can only be done by connecting the concept of disease to certain fundamental elements of social justice, which has been the subject of a much longer and much more extensive debate spanning almost the entire history of western philosophy since the...

Concluding Remarks

Thus, immune-mediated diseases represent an enormous medical, social, and economical problem and require serious and instant attention of clinicians, scientists, pharmacists, biotech professionals, and politicians as well. The study of the immune system has led to significant findings in many fields of medicine and biology and resulted in the discovery of novel and powerful tools and reagents that are now used for diagnosis and therapy of a variety of diseases. The development of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against many infectious agents, as well as innovative im-munotherapeutic and immune gene engineering approaches for patients with cancer, allergy, and immunodeficiency, has substantially decreased mortality and morbidity and improved the life style, life expectancy, and well being of the millions of patients with immune-mediated and immune-associated diseases. With a strong research background and the availability of powerful modern research tools, we can anticipate that...

General Remark

The Manual of Aesthetic Surgery has thus come about through tireless work. My clinic at Lake Constance is the largest clinic of its kind in Europe, a training clinic with interdisciplinary cooperation between all specialties that provide a stimulus for aesthetic surgery. Doctors from the disciplines of plastic surgery, ENT and dental surgery, dermatology, aesthetic dentistry, and anti-aging medicine all work in the clinic at Lake Constance. There are also dietary assistants, specialist beauticians, hairstylists, color consultants, and psychologists.

Con ten t

Prognosis. 'How long have I got doctor ' This is a common question. Sometimes the best initial response is to ask why the patient wishes to know. This may then provide the opportunity to discuss particular fears and anxieties before dealing with the prognosis. It may also alert (he patient to the nature of the problem. It is important to emphasise that nobody can predict life-expectancy accurately. Il is best not to mention any specific time or range, and to maintain and share the uncertainty with the patient - 'neither of us knows . The focus can then be switched to something practical and relevant, such as whether the patient would want to know the signs or symptoms that might herald deterioration or what steps the patient ought to consider taking now, given the current status of the disease. However, giving patients an approximate life-expectancy enables them to make important decisions about how they intend to use their remaining life and to prepare for death. The advice given to...

Cat Facts

Smaller cats, approximately 2 months Life span Potential longevity is probably fifteen years for most species some individuals have lived over thirty years Special anatomy Large eyes with excellent night vision jaws adapted to seizing and gripping prey, teeth designed for tearing and slicing flesh

Staying Young

Staying Young

Discover The Secrets To Staying Young Forever. Discover How To Hinder The Aging Process On Your Body And In Your Life. Do you feel left out when it comes to trying to look young and keeping up with other people your age? Do you feel as though your body has been run down like an old vehicle on its last legs? Those feelings that you have not only affect you physically, but they can also affect you mentally. Thats not good.

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