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Memory Professor System

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Memory Professor System Summary


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Contents: Ebook
Author: Kit Stevenson
Official Website: memoryprofessor.com
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My Memory Professor System Review

Highly Recommended

I usually find books written on this category hard to understand and full of jargon. But the writer was capable of presenting advanced techniques in an extremely easy to understand language.

All the modules inside this e-book are very detailed and explanatory, there is nothing as comprehensive as this guide.

Development of Short Term Memory Capacity

The measure of memory capacity to be discussed draws upon a logic first developed by Sperling (1960). He presented briefly flashed arrays of printed characters and required that part of the array or the whole array be identified. A tone served as a partial report cue indicating that one particular row was to be recalled. The cue could occur at variable amounts of time after the array. At short partial report-cue delays, most of the information in a particular row of the array could be reported. However, at longer cue delays the number reported decreased, to an asymptotically low level after about 1 sec. The calculated number of items available from the entire array with a long cue delay closely approximated the number actually reported when no cue was presented and the whole array had to be reported. In these situations, about 4 items were available from the array. Importantly, this number available did not depend on the number of characters present in the array. It was interpreted as...

The Development Of Autobiographical Memory By Boez

The pliability of autobiographical memory Misinformation and the false memory problem. In D. C. Rubin (Ed.), Remembering our Past Studies in Autobiographical Memory (pp. 157-179). New York Cambridge University Press. Bruner, J. & Feldman, C. F. (1996). Group narrative as a cultural context of autobiography. In D. C. Rubin (Ed.), Remembering our Past Studies in Autobiographical Memory (pp. 291-317). New York Cambridge University Press. Fivush, R., Haden, C. & Reese, E. (1996). Remembering, recounting, and reminiscing The development of autobiographical memory in social context. In D. C. Rubin (Ed.), Remembering our Past Studies in Autobiographical Memory ( pp. 341-359). New York Cambridge University Press. Hirst, W. & Manier, D. (1996). Remembering as communication A family recounts its past. In D. C. Rubin (Ed.), Remembering our past Studies in Autobiographical Memory (pp. 271-290). New York Cambridge University Press. Rubin, D. C. (Ed.) (1996)....

Working Memory and Attentional Processes across the Lifespan

Although the definition of working memory (WM) varies among researchers, there is a clear consensus with respect to its function. WM is defined as a system, or as a set of processes, that serves to process and maintain temporary information for use in other cognitive tasks. Thus, in contrast with earlier concepts of primary memory or of short-term memory, WM implies an active mental manipulation in addition to a temporary maintenance of information that is, it is considered as a process-oriented construct. Moreover, WM is generally considered to be a complex system with a limited capacity, constrained both by limitations in the amount of activation that can be distributed and by limited attentional resources available to activate and maintain task-relevant information while inhibiting task-irrelevant information (e.g., Miyake & Shah, 1999 Richardson, 1996). There is an important controversy with respect to the question of whether WM constitutes a structural entity, i.e., a memory...

Is the Bump Just for Autobiographical Memory

Ribot 1882

The studies reviewed so far are all about autobiographical memory. But once one starts to look, one finds plots similar to the bump in autobiographical memory in other domains as well. A full explanation of the bump needs to take such plots into account and decide whether they are relevant to processes occurring in autobiographical memory. The oldest such plot I know about appears in Ribot (1882). He claims that for most people, imagination rises and drops in a fashion similar to the plots shown for autobiographical memory. For a select few, such as Ribot, I assume, it continues at a high level though old age. Like the bump, it has components. Early in the lifespan, imagination is used for play, then for sexual fantasy, and finally for more mature use. Other classic theories also have peaks that correspond to those in the bump. Identity formation in personality theories is the most obvious (Erickson, 1950). Ideas similar to the bump are common, especially when the effects of narrative...

Developmental Changes in Working Memory A Multicomponent View

Working memory is the part of the human memory system that serves cognition by maintaining temporary information in an active state. Its limited capacity is thought to constrain performance in activities such as reading (Just & Carpenter, 1992), reasoning (Hitch & Baddeley, 1976), and mental calculation (Furst & Hitch, 2000). In view of such a wideranging role, it is not surprising that the development of working memory has been seen as playing an important role in cognitive development (Case, 1985 Halford, Wilson & Phillips, 1998). However, while the theoretical concept of working memory is at a stage of maturity where there is agreement on many points, several outstanding issues remain (see, e.g., the recent volume edited by Miyake & Shah, 1999). An important distinction is between working memory as a unitary system (Engle, Tuholski, Laughlin & Conway, 1999) or as multiple subsystems, each with a different capacity and function (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974 Baddeley, 1986). The present...

Components of Working Memory

According to the multicomponent view of working memory proposed by Baddeley and Hitch (1974 see also Baddeley, 1986), working memory consists of a central executive closely linked to two modality-specific slave systems, a phonological loop and a visuospatial sketchpad. The central executive is a general-purpose coordinator that enables ongoing processing to be combined with the storage of temporary information and has access to the peripheral subsystems for support. The phonological loop and the visuospatial sketchpad are specialized for dealing with verbal and visuospatial information, respectively. This tripartite model was originally proposed to account for the interfering effects of performing a short-term memory task while performing a range of other cognitive tasks (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974). Subsequent research has elaborated its components as follows. concept has proved remarkably robust and surprisingly fruitful in applications beyond its original remit. For example, the model...

The start of everyday memory research

Ously undermined if the variables themselves are too artificial and unrealistic and the experiment produces results that cannot be explained in human terms. Further research on everyday memory is, therefore, essential to obtain the kind of qualitative data needed to understand the mechanisms underlying real human beings. There has been a general increase in everyday memory research since Neisser, as evidenced by the increased attention to topics such as face memory, flashbulb memory, and eyewitness memory. The more recent active research into prospective memory, autobiographical memory, and false memory, for example, is also partly due to the shift to everyday memory research.

The Influence of the Lifespan Approach on Memory Research

When we start to make these kinds of comparisons, we can start to identify interesting patterns in the lifespan development of memory. In figure 1, for example, 3 patterns for the lifespan development of memory are represented with memory abilities and age plotted along the vertical and horizontal axes, respectively. The first development pattern shows an initial increase in memory abilities with age until a peak is reached, after which there is a gradual decline in abilities with age. This pattern corresponds roughly to explicit memory, such as recall and recognition

Theories of lifespan memory development

Theories of lifespan development of memory is essential as a basis for future advances. The multiple-memory-systems theory advocated by Tulving and Schacter (1990) could possibly be extended into a theory of the lifespan development of memory. This theory specifies the multiple systems of episodic memory, semantic memory, a perceptual representation system, and procedural memory, which are arranged in this order from top to bottom in a linear hierarchy, with the higher-level systems being embedded in and supported by the lower-level memory systems. This structural organization is in line with the lifespan-development approach, for higher-level systems develop later than the lower-level systems, but the higher-level systems start to deteriorate earlier in older adults. Although this theory provides a basic framework for understanding the lifespan development of memory, accounts of the functional mechanisms within and between systems need to be developed.

Developmental Changes in Executive Processes

As stated earlier, this discussion focuses on the concept of a central workspace in which resources for processing and storage trade off against each other. This approach uses tasks devised to measure working memory span, the ability to store information while performing processing operations (Daneman & Carpenter, 1980). For example, in a reading-span task, participants were presented with a series of unrelated sentences to read and comprehend, under instructions that they would be asked to recall the last word of each sentence immediately afterwards. By varying the number of sentences, it was possible to find out the span limit on how many sentence-final words could be maintained while reading. Daneman and Carpenter (1980) found that for college students, working memory span was much better at predicting performance on scholastic attainment tests than digit span, a task they viewed as lacking the critical requirement to combine processing with storage. Subsequent research, including...

The traditional differentialdeficits approach

The existing methods for circumventing these problems are not wholly satisfying. Let me illustrate the problem using a hypothetical example related to working memory. Suppose that one wanted to test the theory that the speed of short-term memory retrieval of abstract words is faster in adults than it is in children. To observe an interpretable differential deficit, one could vary the length of lists of concrete words to identify list lengths that yield equivalent performance levels in the two age groups. A hypothetical data set yielding this pattern of results is shown in figure 1. It indicates that children's reaction times for two-word lists are equivalent to adults' reaction times for four-word lists. One could then use these particular list lengths to examine performance on lists of abstract words. If the expected age difference were obtained, one would conclude that adults are superior to children in dealing with abstract words in this specific short-term memory situation.

An approach using difficultyinsensitive measures

One type of measure that could contribute to our understanding is a measure in which the properties of a basic cognitive operation are estimated. The basic operations are difficult to define except within a particular theoretical framework, but operations that I will consider basic yield one of the two parameters noted above (1) the rate at which words are retrieved from short-term memory and (2) the capacity of short-term memory for words. If one can measure a basic operation, one can understand task performance as a combination of such operations. An extension of the previously used hypothetical example is shown in figure 2. In this figure, a reaction time is composed of a number of operations of equal duration. For example, each operation could reflect a search through short-term memory to find a particular probed item (Sternberg, 1996). If we hypothetically assume that nothing else influences performance, then the estimate of the basic operation will allow us to predict...

Theoretical Framework

Basic parameters of information processing can be identified only within a specified theoretical framework. Although there are uncertainties within any such framework, I will rely on an embedded processes'' framework (Cowan, 1999a), in which there are two parts to what is meant by short-term memory.'' First, there is a limited number of items that can be held at one time in the focus of attention. The information is limited to a particular number of chunks (Miller, 1956). To measure the contents of this focus of attention, it is necessary to seek situations in which the number of chunks is known. One way to do this is to examine situations in which the subject is unable to group items together, so that the number of chunks equals the number of items presented to the subject. Second, there is the set of information that is outside of the focus of attention but nevertheless in a state of activation that makes it more accessible to attention than is the majority of information in...

Development of a Short Term Memory Retrieval Rate

We have measured the rate of retrieval of information from short-term memory in situations in which children and adults hear lists of words or digits and are to repeat the list items in the order in which they were presented (Cowan, 1992 Cowan et al., 1994, 1998 Cowan, 1999b Hulme, Newton, Cowan, Stuart & Brown, 1999). Using only trials in which the recall was completely correct, we have measured the duration of each word and each interword silent interval in the response, using a sound-waveform-editing program to do the timing. These studies have established several findings about the timing of spoken recall, as follows.

Long Term Retention of Preschool Memories

In a related study, Fivush and Schwarzmueller (1998) studied children's memories from preschool through school age. Children were initially interviewed as part of a longitudinal study examining autobiographical memory development in social context (see Fivush, Haden & Reese, 1996, for details). In the initial study, children were interviewed four While final conclusions about the role of stress on long-term memory must await completion of analyses, several conclusions can be drawn from the data examined thus far. First of all, young children remember more information in verbal recall, as evidenced by the doubling of information provided when children were older and had more sophisticated language skills. Moreover, whereas one might expect recall to become more difficult over time, with children needing more specific cues and prompts, the obtained pattern is just the reverse. Although more time has passed, it is also the case that children are more linguistically and mnemonically...

Explaining Childhood Amnesia

Autobiographical memory An introduction. Buckingham Fivush, R., Haden, C., & Reese, E. (1996). Remembering, recounting and reminiscing The development of autobiographical memory in social context. In D. Rubin (Ed.), Remembering our past An overview of autobiographical memory (pp. 341-359). New York Cambridge University Press. Fivush, R., & Hamond, N. (1990). Autobiographical memory across the preschool years Towards reconceptualizing childhood amnesia. In R. Fivush & J. A. McDermott, J., Goldberg, A., Park, S., Fivush, R., Bahrick, L., & Parker, J. (1999). Children's long-term memory of a stressful event. Poster presented at the meetings of the Cognitive Development Society, October, Chapel Hill, N.C. Nelson, K. (1988). The ontogeny of memory for real events. In U. Neisser & E. Winograd (Eds.), Remembering reconsidered Ecological and traditional approaches to the study of memory (pp. 244-276). New York Cambridge. Rovee-Collier, C., & Shyi, C. W. G. (1992). A...

Reduced effects of individualdifference variables

Activity levels), cognitive domain (e.g., processing speed, working-memory capacity), and biological domain (e.g., circulatory factors, vitamin status) play an important role in memory performance among normal old adults (for reviews, see Backman, Small, et al., 1999 Hultsch, Hertzog, Dixon & Small, 1998). Interestingly, research indicates that the influence of various subject characteristics on memory functioning is markedly reduced in AD. For example, investigators have examined whether onset age (which, of course, is highly related to chronological age) influences performance at a given point in time or rate of cognitive decline in AD. Although some research suggests that early-onset patients may be more impaired and exhibit a faster rate of decline than late-onset patients, perhaps because of more severe and widespread brain lesions (e.g., Hansen, De Teresa, Davies & Terry, 1988 Mann, 1994 Wilson, Gilley, Bennett, Beckett & Evans, 2000), the bulk of empirical evidence indicates...

The course of the impairment

That various implicit-memory processes, such as perceptual priming, are affected in early clinical AD (for reviews, see Fleischman & Gabrieli, 1998 Meiran & Jelicic, 1995). Brain imaging research with young and normal old adults indicates that perceptual priming is associated with decreased neural activity in the posterior neocortex (e.g., Backman et al., 1997 Buckner et al., 1995). This result has been interpreted to mean that less neural energy is required to process a particular stimulus after prior exposure (e.g., Ungerleider, 1995). In a recent study (Backman, Almkvist, Nyberg & Andersson, 2000), it was found that preclinical-and early-clinical-AD patients failed to exhibit decreased neural activity in the posterior neocortex during priming, which possibly reflects inadequate initial stimulus processing. Bringing together these observations with the finding that recognition contributed to the prediction of AD independently of recall, we can hypothesize that unconscious memory...

Memorys Prospective Function

With this definition, any memory task is objectively describable in terms of cues, instructions, a context (e.g., spatial, emotional), and a response type (see Graf & Birt, 1996). Under some circumstances, a difference in a single property is sufficient for distinguishing between two types of memory tasks. In many previous investigations of implicit and explicit memory, for example, the memory tests differed only in terms of the instructions given to subjects. That is, both tests used the exact same cues, required the same response type, and were given in the same context (e.g., Graf & Mandler, 1984 Schacter & Graf, 1986). Similarly, we can conceive of ProM and RetM tasks that make use of the same cues and context. The context might be a laboratory room, and a cue for remembering might be the experimenter's giving the subject a printed form showing the initial letters of previously studied words. When cues and context are held constant in this manner, this serves to isolate the...

The Role of Knowledge in Childrens Memory

People often draw inferences that go beyond the information given on the basis of their prior knowledge (see Graesser & Bower, 1990). Inference may be defined as the generation of new information from old. Human cognitive processes, such as sentence understanding, effective social interaction, and so on, usually involve inferences that go beyond what is explicit. Children also draw inferences when they understand and memorize text. Recent research on inferences has turned toward analyses of the constructive nature of memory, namely analyses of the elaborative operations and strategies employed by children to encode Two types of inferences may be found in sentence processing necessary inferences and elaborative inferences (Sanford, 1990). Necessary inferences, including bridging inferences, are made to construct a coherent representation of the text. On the other hand, elaborative inferences (e.g., instrumental inferences) are made to process each sentence and fill out its meaning....

Developmental Changes in the Visuospatial Sketchpad

In theoretical terms, therefore, there seems to be a marked developmental change in how subsystems of working memory are used to remember nameable pictures. At around age 5, children primarily rely upon the visuospatial sketchpad, whereas only a few years later, they clearly prefer to use verbal recoding. The reasons for such a major qualitative change are not immediately obvious. One interpretation is that development of the functional capacity of the phonological loop makes verbal recoding of pictures an increasingly effective strategy. However, this explanation seems inadequate on the evidence that adults persist in using verbal recoding even when it impairs their performance. For example, Brandimonte, Hitch, and Bishop (1992) investigated adults' ability to manipulate mental images of recently presented visual stimuli. Performance was critically dependent on memory for the visual appearance of the stimuli. Nevertheless, participants showed a strong tendency to engage in verbal...

The intentionsuperiority effect

For obvious reasons, it is probably not sufficient to rely entirely on self-ratings obtained retrospectively. A more direct method of investigating the status of ProM tasks during the retention interval is provided by Goschke and Kuhl (1993). Students were asked to memorize descriptions of different activities, such as setting the dinner table or clearing a messy desk. They were then informed which of these scripts they were later to execute (rather than simply observe). In a subsequent speeded recognition test for the words in the instructions, participants responded more quickly to words from the to-be-executed script than to words from the to-be-observed script. Goschke and Kuhl's (1993) results from four experiments suggested that representations of intentions are characterized by a heightened level of subthreshold activation in long-term memory'' (p. 1211). They demonstrated that this intention-superiority effect'' was neither the result of selective encoding nor differential...

Even Younger Students Make Instrumental Inferences Using Their Knowledge

Judging from the results of the studies mentioned above, can we conclude that younger students never automatically make instrumental inferences while reading and memorizing sentences (i.e., on-line) We used an implicit memory test to examine confidence in the above conclusions of prior studies. In the experiments from our three studies (Suzuki, 2000 Tajika et al., 1996 Tajika & Taniguchi, 1995), our goal was to examine the occurrence of younger students' instrumental inferences while reading and memorizing sentences. The logic of the experiments was that even younger students could automatically generate instrumental inferences while memorizing sentences, but that they could not use instruments as retrieval cues. In the study phase of our experiments (Tajika et al., 1996 Tajika & Taniguchi, 1995), the participants were 80 students in grades 3 (mean age 9 years, 7 months N 40), 6 (mean age 12 years, 8 months N 40) from two elementary schools and 102 university students (mean age 19...

Summary and Conclusions

We have briefly considered some of the evidence on the development of working memory in children using the multicomponent model of Baddeley and Hitch (1974) as an organizing framework. In doing so, we have seen that making a distinction between the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketchpad sheds light on the course of development. Although simple memory spans reflecting these components appear to develop at the same rate, there is a marked developmental shift in which older children and adults, unlike younger children, recode visual materials verbally using the phonological loop. We note that this tendency can be so strong as to persist even in tasks where it is highly inappropriate. In contrast, younger children rely on the visuospatial sketchpad to remember visual materials. Further evidence indicates that the development of the two subsystems can be selectively disrupted by different types of genetic disorder. In the light of such evidence it seems difficult to maintain that...

Developmental Changes in the Phonological Loop

Gathercole and Hitch (1993) suggested that the developmental growth of auditory-verbal short-term memory (STM) reflects the increased speed with which information can be read out from the phonological store during rehearsal or recall. Thus, the concept of the phonological loop has helped to describe developmental change in verbal short-term memory, and in turn, developmental data have helped clarify the operation of the phonological loop.

ProM and Normal Aging

Ately reduced the cognitive demands of the background task for their older participants by presenting them with shorter word lists to remember (see also Cherry & LeCompte, 1999). In contrast, Maylor (1993a, 1996a, 1998) used a background task of naming that is known to be particularly difficult in old age (see Maylor, 1997). This raises the question of the relationship between the ProM task and the background task in which it is embedded (see Maylor, 1998). Second, perhaps another difference between studies could be crucial in accounting for mixed results, namely, that procedures vary in terms of the relationship between stimulus processing required to perform the background task and stimulus processing required to perform the ProM task. This has been termed the task-appropriate processing hypothesis (Maylor, 1996a). Thus, in Einstein and McDaniel's study, the background and ProM tasks required the same type or level of stimulus processing in order both to remember the word for the...

Future Directions Multiple Systems across the Lifespan

Working Memory Lifespan

Autobiographical memory requires the use of the integrative memory system, at least one modality-specific imagery system (usually visual imagery), spatial imagery, to varying degrees imagery in the other senses, language, narrative reasoning, and emotions. For different memories within an individual and for different clinical populations, the degree to which each system contributes varies. Thus, for instance, flashbulb memories are more likely to have considerable visual and spatial imagery, and people who are depressed or who have posttraumatic-stress disorder are likely to have voluntary memories that lack sensory details and narrative coherence. In contrast, the intrusive memories of people with posttraumatic-stress disorder are likely to have considerable sensory detail and, compared to other memories, sensory details in the olfactory and gustatory system. There is considerable support for this view from behavior (Rubin, Greenberg & Schrauf, 2000) and neuropsychology (Rubin &...

Younger Students Do Not Make Instrumental Inferences Using Their Knowledge

Van Meter and Pressley (1994) reexamined whether spontaneous encoding of instruments occurs when 10- to 14-year-olds read target sentences. They used a word-fragment completion test. However, it was not an implicit memory test. They instructed students that the fragments were from words in the sentences that students had just read. Implicit memory tests are operationally defined as memory tests for which the participant is given no instructions to consciously retrieve information from a prior study list, even though performance on the test may be affected by previous exposure to the list (e.g., Roediger & McDermott, 1993). The results showed that the instrument-fragment completion rates of the students who were instructed to read instrument-implicit sentences were much lower than the rates of students who were instructed to generate instruments and of students who read instrument-explicit sentences.

Differences in the Properties of Autobiographical Memories

One autobiographical memory from each of the 14 five-year periods of each older adult's life was selected. Each participant was asked to rate these 14 memories on several properties. There were five seven-point scales vividness, pleasantness, significance, novelty of the event, and frequency of rehearsal. A three-point emotionality scale was calculated as the absolute value of the difference of the pleasantness rating from neutral. Separate analyses were performed for each scale, but none of the scales provided statistically significant differences in the bump period, even though there was considerable statistical power when all 60 older participants were combined. Conway and Haque (1999) obtained similar findings for ratings on three scales similar in wording to the ones Rubin and Schulkind (1997a) used significance, novelty of the event, and frequency of rehearsal, as well as a scale that directly measured emotional intensity. This observation supports the interpretation of the bump...

Conclusion A Research Agenda

The study briefly reported in this chapter was a first attempt on our part to provide preliminary empirical backup to the proposal that both processing speed and inhibition influence age differences in WM across the lifespan. It was not possible to study age in a continuous manner and the study was limited to a comparison of children aged 8 to 12 years of age, young adults, and older adults. The young-adult group was considered as an anchoring group to which compare children on the one hand and older adults on the other hand the focus was therefore not placed on a comparison of children and older adults. The first question raised was whether all three constructs (or tasks supposed to tap this construct) undergo change with age. The response was clearly affirmative age differences were significant in all tasks, as well as in the summary scores used in the present chapter. I emphasize, however, that change was steepest for processing speed the difference between children and young...

Some Results Relating to Memory Systems

In addition to these episodic-memory tasks, there were also three sets of semantic-memory tasks included in the Betula battery word fluency, word comprehension, and general knowledge. There were four word-fluency tests. The task was to generate as many words as possible during a period of one minute for each of these four criteria (a) words with the initial letter A, (b) five-letter words with the initial letter M, (c) words that are names of professions with the initial letter B, and (d) five-letter words that are names of animals with the initial letter S. Word-fluency tasks usually produce minor age deficits. Because there were time restrictions in responding, it was thought that age differences may occur (e.g., Hultsch et al., 1992 Salthouse, 1993). The data from the Betula study revealed significant age deficits. However, when number of years in formal education was used as a covariate in the analysis, the age differences were eliminated (Backman & Nilsson, 1996 Nilsson et al.,...

Birth Middle Age Old

The second development pattern is the same as the first development pattern up to the peak. However, the memory abilities do not decline even at old ages. Although the contrast between explicit and implicit memory in terms of increasing abilities in childhood is open to debate (Cycowicz, Friedman, Snodgrass & Rothstein, 2000), this development pattern corresponds roughly to implicit memory, such as priming and procedural memory. In the last development pattern, the memory abilities continue to rise throughout the whole lifespan, but what are these abilities Generally speaking, unlike intelligence, as measured by standard intelligence tests, wisdom increases with age. Wisdom is a kind of intelligence the practical intelligence of real life, covering, for example, interpersonal skills, ways of living, and problem-solving abilities. Although there has been some research on the characteristics of wisdom, there has been no research on wisdom memory,'' which would fall under the...

Prospective and Retrospective Memory in Adulthood

With the overall goal to increase the visibility of ProM, we begin this chapter by identifying and defining the uniquely prospective function of memory. This function appears to encompass a domain as wide as that of RetM. Therefore, we argue, ProM research should proceed with a divide-and-conquer strategy similar to that used for RetM research, that is, by identifying distinct subdomains (like episodic and semantic memory) and by pursuing research questions and theoretical accounts that focus on them. For the reasons that made it useful and even necessary to adopt clear subdomain labels and definitions for RetM, we believe that it will be equally useful and necessary in the future for ProM researchers to identify precisely which subdomain is targeted by each investigation.


In this chapter I have examined developmental changes in two elementary parameters of information processing taking place during childhood, as observed in memory for spoken stimuli the short-term-memory search or retrieval rate during spoken recall, and the short-term-memory A difficulty-insensitive measure of memory capacity, the number correct, shown here for several list lengths (solid lines) and for span-length lists (dashed line) and based on the same data set as figure 6. (Reprinted from the right-hand panel of figure 2 of Cowan, Saults, et al., 1999.) A difficulty-insensitive measure of memory capacity, the number correct, shown here for several list lengths (solid lines) and for span-length lists (dashed line) and based on the same data set as figure 6. (Reprinted from the right-hand panel of figure 2 of Cowan, Saults, et al., 1999.) capacity limit. These parameter changes can be studied only within the boundaries of a theoretical framework. Within such a framework, they hold...

Early Event Memory

While these kinds of findings indicate quite robust memory skills very early in development, there are also significant limitations of early memory. Early memories do not seem to endure as long as later memories The development of verbal recall heralds a fundamentally new memory ability for several reasons. First, verbal recall is the clearest evidence of a consciously accessible explicit memory of a specific experience. Second, verbal recall is the only way in which past events can be communicated with others in the absence of any other physical cues. Although memories of past events can be demonstrated in action, given the appropriate context and props, verbal memory is completely decontextual-ized. Third and most important, verbal recall allows the individual to talk about the event with others. The ability to share one's past experiences with others through language provides several new opportunities for memory enhancement, including verbal rehearsal and reorganization of the...


The results of our studies showed that when students' prior knowledge was equalized for each grade and an implicit memory test was used, even such young students as second-graders (8-year-olds) and third-graders (9-year-olds) made instrumental inferences while reading or memorizing target sentences. According to the literature on verbal perceptual implicit memory tests (e.g., Roediger & McDermott, 1993), a reliable amount of priming of implicitly introduced instrument words on an implicit memory test predicts that instrumental inferences have occurred during encoding There are some explanations for the gap in the results between the implicit memory test and the explicit memory test. One possible explanation is that metacognitive processes in younger students do not work well. Younger students automatically activate their prior knowledge about relations between target sentences and their instruments. However, they did not understand well how instrumental cues might help them...

Brief History

Crovitz and Schiffman (1974) revived Galton's technique. About the same time Robinson (1976) independently came upon the same procedure. People were asked to think of an autobiographical memory in response to each word presented to them. They were then asked to return to their memories and date each one as accurately as possible. When both axes are plotted as logarithmic scales, as they are in figure 1, the power function becomes a straight line (i.e., log(y) b log(t) + log(a)). The fits to the curve are surprisingly good, with correlations usually over .95. If we assume that undergraduates encode an equal number of events each day of their lives, then the plot shown in figure 1 is a retention function. Because the power function is a common choice for a retention function (Anderson & Schooler, 1991 see Rubin & Wenzel, 1996, for a review), as a first approximation it appears that laboratory and autobiographical memory have similar patterns of forgetting (but see Rubin, Hinton &...

The Role of Emotions

There are studies that examine the effect of clinical disorders involving emotional state on the distribution of autobiographical memory. The only data in which bump memories appear to be different than recent In addition to depression, posttraumatic-stress disorder differentially affects autobiographical memory across the lifespan. Vietnam War veterans with posttraumatic-stress disorder had more memories from the time of the Vietnam War than did veterans without posttraumatic-stress disorder (McNally, Lasko, Macklin & Pitman, 1995). In addition, veterans with posttraumatic-stress disorder, like patients with depression (Williams, 1996), had difficulty recalling specific autobiographical memories and had more difficulty producing specific memories when the cue words were positive traits as opposed to negative traits. The differences in the distribution of autobiographical memories and in the specificity of those memories were greatest for those veterans with posttraumatic-stress...

The Role of Language

One way to study the role of language in autobiographical memory is to test sequential bilinguals who learn their two languages at different periods of their lives. By asking sequential bilinguals to recall autobiographical memories from across their lifespan in both of their languages, the extent to which autobiographical memory is stored in a language as opposed to other forms of representation can be studied. Clinicians have observed that childhood and traumatic memories are more easily accessed in bilinguals' first language (Aragno & Schalet, 1996 Javier, 1995 Schrauf, 2000), and thus childhood amnesia may be greater for bilinguals tested in their second language. For memories in general (Bugelski, 1977) and for autobiographical memories in particular (Marion & Neisser, 1997), sequential bilinguals tend to recall older memories in the first language.

Memory Processing

Perceptual-representation system, and semantic memory. With respect to analyses of memory processes, several distinctions can be made. One such distinction is that between encoding and retrieval. The nature of the interaction between these two processes is of fundamental importance for analyzing the outcome in most episodic-memory tests. Developmental effects in the episodic-memory tasks mentioned can easily be compared with developmental effects in the semantic-memory tasks. The semantic-memory tasks used in this study are first of all the four-word fluency tests and the word-comprehension test. As mentioned, age deficits were demonstrated in these semantic-memory tasks in the Betula study with subjects randomly selected from the population. As can be imagined, there are bound to be large differences in several demographic variables in such a sample in comparison with studies in which subjects in different age cohorts are matched with respect to all sorts of background variables....

Other Variables

These and many other variables for which data were collected in the Betula study are yet to be analyzed in relation to aging and memory. One study on other variables is a study by Herlitz, Nilsson and Backman (1997), who examined potential gender differences in episodic memory, semantic memory, primary memory and priming. There were no differences between men and women with regard to age, education, or global intellectual functioning. Men outperformed women on a visuospatial task, and women outperformed men on tests of verbal fluency. Most important, the results demonstrated that women consistently performed at a higher level than men on episodic-memory tasks, although there were no differences between men and women on the tasks assessing semantic memory, primary memory, or priming. Women's higher performance on the episodic-memory tasks could not be fully explained by their higher verbal ability. Nyberg, Backman, Erngrund, Olofsson, and Nilsson (1996) explored whether an age effect...

Subdomains of ProM

An intuitive analysis reveals that different ProM activities are associated with different conscious experiences. For example, waiting for the pot to boil is a short-term task it is likely to be kept active in working memory and to dominate conscious awareness. By contrast, if we plan in the morning to get groceries en route from work later in the day, this involves a different type of conscious experience. This plan is not likely to remain active and dominant in working memory it is out of conscious awareness for most of the retention interval (i.e., the period between making the plan and executing it). Instead, the retention interval is filled with other activities, the ProM-task-relevant cue (e.g., the supermarket) appears incidentally as a natural part of these other activities (e.g., driving home from work), and what is of interest is whether the cue succeeds in bringing the previously formed plan back into conscious awareness (Einstein & McDaniel, 1996 Graf & Uttl, 2001...


Working memory I used four tasks to assess working memory, three focusing on visuospatial processing and one on verbal processing. For all working-memory tasks, trials of different complexity were randomly ordered. This choice was made because of the possibility that older adults are more affected than young adults by presenting items according to their difficulty (Hasher et al., personal communication, July 1999).

General Cognition

Finally, the Mini-Mental State Examination test (MMSE Folstein, Folstein & McHugh, 1975) was also included in the Betula battery. MMSE is a screening test for cognitive dysfunction. This test assesses orientation in time and space, short-term memory, episodic long-term memory, subtraction, ability to construct, and language ability. The maximum score in this test is 30 a score below 24 points is generally regarded as an indication of cognitive dysfunction. Data from the Betula study demonstrated a significant performance decrement as a function of age (Nilsson et al., 1997).

Emergence and persistence in macro and micro environments

This brief discussion concentrates on adaptive immunity, the spectrum of precisely targeted host response mechanisms that maintain the functional integrity of the environment within subsequent to virus challenge. It ignores the innate immune system, which may be of great importance in the early stage of infection with some viruses, particularly the herpesviruses 71 , but is neither conventionally antigen specific nor capable of generating the long-term memory that is the basis of immunization. Of course, both aspects of immunity work together. The themes of cytotoxic effector function 30 and localized cytokine production 95, 103 , particularly y-interferon (IFN-y) and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), are shared by the cells of the innate and adaptive systems.

Metaphor Memory and Unconscious Imagination

Cognitive linguists Lakoff and Johnson (1999) affirm what has long been known the source of the imagination, what makes us uniquely human, is an unconscious metaphoric process. Unconscious autobiographical memory, the memory of the self and its intentions, is constantly recontextualized, and the link between conscious experience and unconscious memory is provided by metaphor. This suggests that the meta-phoric process that we recognize in our dreams is also continuously operative while we are awake.

The Importance of a Litigation Strategy and Discovery Plan

To ensure that the meeting with your lawyer is as productive as possible, you should first read the complaint and try to discern from it what you are accused of having done or not done that supposedly makes you liable. If the complaint is what is known as a form complaint, this generally will be more difficult than if it is written by the plaintiff's counsel and sets forth some specific facts. However, in reading the complaint, you will at least be able to learn the identity of the plaintiff and when the event that allegedly resulted in injury occurred, even if it is a general form. Check your own records to see what they reveal about the plaintiff and to help refresh your memory. Make copies of these records so that you can review them without getting marks on your originals that could be misconstrued as attempts to alter the records. You will want to have reviewed whatever information you can quickly assemble before you meet with your attorney so that you can share all you recall...

Metaphor and the Recontextualization of Memory

The hypothesis of an unconscious metaphoric process must be linked to memory. I believe that our unconscious autobiographical memory, in which emotion is salient, forms potential categories by means of metaphor. To convince you of the reasonableness of this hypothesis, I will describe two theories of memory one proposed by Freud and the other by Edelman. If memory is organized in accordance with an unconscious metaphoric process, we must assume that autobiographical memory, memory of the self and its intentions, is extremely plastic and subject to constant recontextualization.

The Varieties of Conscious and Unconscious Memory Systems

Although there may be innumerable different memory systems in the brain, many cognitive scientists have followed the lead of the psychologist Endel Tulving (1972), who differentiated experiential memory, which he called episodic, from what he termed semantic memory. Episodic memory is temporally dated, whereas semantic memory is not. Semantic memory refers to knowledge-based memory, the memory of acquired information not in any sense autobiographical. Another well-known category of memory is that of procedural memory, the memory of motor routines, such as learning to ride a bicycle or learning to play the piano. Unlike episodic memory, which can potentially become conscious, implicit procedural memory is incapable of becoming conscious. That is to say, we cannot consciously recall (without performing the action) the sequence of motor acts required to ride a bicycle or tie our shoelaces. Procedural memory is without meaning and has no relation to metaphor. Some cognitive scientists and...

Courtship and Nesting

In some species, the young accompany the female on the southward migration, but most young migrate on their own, relying on inbuilt genetic programming to fly hundreds and sometimes thousands of miles using the sun or stars or both as navigation aids. Many species memorize landmarks such as lakes and river courses, which supplement celestial navigation aids on future migrations. Studies have also suggested that at least some ducks are able to tap into the earth's magnetic field for directional aid on overcast days, when other cues are unavailable.

Present Change Making Implicit Models of Relationships Explicit

This version of psychic change suggests that we all have formative early interpersonal experiences that contribute to the development of dynamic templates or, if you like, schemata of self-other relationships. These templates are encoded in the implicit procedural memory system. This system stores a non-conscious knowledge of how to do things and how to relate to others. Sandler and Sandler (1997) see mother-infant interactions as the contexts for the earliest formulations of self and object representations and as providing the basic unit of self-representation. The Sandlers refer to this as the past unconscious. Its contents are not directly accessible. Nevertheless, it stores procedures for relationships that may well be stamped into the developing frontal limbic circuitry in the brain and provides strategies for affect regulation, thus influencing the processing of socio-affective information throughout the lifespan (Schore, 1994).

Preliminary Conceptual Clarifications

A preliminary remark is required at this juncture on the conceptual relationship of enhancement and improvement . An enhancement of particular human features and properties certainly does imply an improvement of the respective feature. There is no enhancement which does not at the same time improve at least something for someone.168 But the improvement implied by an enhancement is relative in at least two senses. First, what counts as an enhancement, viz improvement, depends on the standpoint from which the desired enhanced state is defined as advantageous, relative to certain values. These values do not necessarily have to be shared by other people. In extreme cases, they could even be rejected by everybody else. An enhancement in that particular, value-relative context may, therefore, not appear to be an enhancement for anybody else, or could even amount to a worsening or a disadvantage from the point of view of other people. Second, enhancements can be, and often are, relative to...

Neurogenesis In The Adult

As if the processes for establishing and maintaining long-term memory weren't already complicated enough, recent findings indicate that hitherto unanticipated mechanisms also may play a role. Specifically, neurogenesis has entered the picture. When I was a young scientific sprout, the dogma was that there is no new generation of neurons in the adult CNS. However, fascinating recent results have shown that neurogenesis does indeed continue into the adult, particularly in the dentate gyrus. One key publication by Fred Gage and his colloborators showed specifically that new neurons are generated in the adult human brain (73). How might one be able to ascertain this fact Cancer patients sometimes receive treatment with the drug Bromo-deoxy Uridine (BrdU). It selectively affects dividing cells by being incorporated into their DNA upon de novo DNA synthesis. Therefore, an ancillary aspect of this is that BrdU selectively labels freshly Are these newly generated cells important for memory...

Consequences Of Hypoglycaemia Cognitive Impairment

The developing brain is extremely vulnerable to all types of cerebral trauma. Studies of children who have experienced closed head injuries suggest that the consequences may be delayed, with subtle cerebral damage becoming evident with time as normal developmental milestones are delayed. A large number of studies have examined the impact of recurrent hypoglycaemia in childhood (Ryan et al., 1985 Golden et al., 1989 Bjorgaas et al., 1997b Hershey et al., 1999 Rovet and Ehrlich, 1999 Northam et al., 2001 Wysocki et al., 2003). Almost without exception, the results have shown a possible link between severe hypoglycaemia and decrements in cognitive performance and that those children most at risk of cognitive impairment have been those diagnosed early in life - usually less than five years of age (Ryan et al., 1985 Golden et al., 1989 Bjorgaas et al., 1997b Northam et al., 2001). Deficiencies have been found in several cognitive domains but are more likely in those originating in the...

Measurement of Cannabis Effects

Attention and cognition are broad psychological terms that include many specific functions involving higher order cognitive processing. Attentional processes involve searching, scanning, and detecting visual or auditory stimuli for brief or extended periods of time. These can be categorized as focused, selective, divided, or sustained attention (30). Cognitive processes involve learning, memory, problem solving, and reasoning skills. Such distinctions are somewhat arbitrary because any memory task requires attention and memory skills, as well as other cognitive resources. Acute cannabis administration impairs many aspects of attention and cognition, as described below and reviewed elsewhere (26-28) (see Note 11). As with psychomotor performance, cognitive impairment can last for up to 24 h after smoking cannabis (31).

Apolipoprotein E In The Nervous System

In a recent series of experiments, we found that mice lacking the ApoE Reelin receptors VLDLR and ApoER2 have pronounced defects in memory formation and hippocampal long-term potentiation (69). Furthermore, Reelin greatly enhances LTP in hippocampal slices. Our results thus reveal a role for ApoE receptors in synaptic function and in the formation of long-term memory. These data are also consistent with a hypothetical model in which the promotion of memory dysfunction by ApoE4 might involve an impairment of this ApoE receptor-dependent signaling pathway how this might be involved in AD is a current line of investigation in several laboratories.

Solutions To Exercises Lesson

There are at least two types of memory--short-term memory and long-term memory. Short-term memory is usually limited to about seven bits of information. A portion of the cerebral cortex is thought to be important in transferring information from short-term memory to long-term memory. It is called the hippocampus. What is the effect on learning if the hippocampus is nonfunctional The individual can learn nothing, but previous long-term memory remains intact. (para 12-38b)

Altered States Of Consciousness External Influences

It is not possible to predict all the effects that may be produced by damage to the brain, whether accidental or intentional. Changes in emotional reactions, memory skills, or perceptual understandings have been demonstrated by testing patients before and after surgery. However, mapping of the brain is not complete enough for consistently accurate predictions to be made.

Multiple personality disorder see dissociative identity disorder Multiple sclerosis MS

A chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) resulting in focal loss of myelin and therefore loss of neuronal activity. MS can cause a variety of symptoms, including changes in sensation, visual problems, muscle weakness, depression, difficulties with coordination and speech, severe fatigue, short term memory loss, problems with balance, overheating and pain. MS causes impaired mobility and disability in more severe cases. MS may take several different forms, with new symptoms occurring either in discrete attacks or slowly accruing over time. Between attacks, symptoms may resolve completely, but permanent neurological problems often persist. The exact cause of MS remains unknown and the disease has no cure. MS primarily affects adults, its age of onset typically is between 20 and 40 years (cf. Section 2.4.5).

Review Activities

The consolidation of short-term memory into long-term memory appears to be a function of function of the cerebral hemispheres. Propose some experiments that would reveal the lateralization of function in the two hemispheres. What evidence do we have that Wernicke's area may control Broca's area What evidence do we have that the angular gyrus has input to Wernicke's area State two reasons why researchers distinguish between short-term and long-term memory. Describe evidence showing that the hippocampus is involved in the consolidation of short-term memory. After long-term memory is established, why may there be no need for hippocampal involvement Can we be aware of a reflex action involving our skeletal muscles Is this awareness necessary for the response Explain, identifying the neural pathways involved in the reflex response and the conscious awareness of a stimulus.

LTP Does Not Equal Memory

Consolidation of Long-Term Memory III. Summary A final theme of this chapter is that the analogy between L-LTP and long-term memory is important and valid independent of whether LTP itself is used in the behaving animal for memory storage per se. Intrinsic to many of the issues we will discuss in this chapter is the question of whether LTP has accurately modeled memory, that is, has investigating the

Bootstrap Percentile Method Confidence Intervals

Now that you have learned the bootstrap principle, it is relatively simple to generate percentile method confidence intervals for the mean. The advantages of the bootstrap confidence interval are that (1) it does not rely on any parametric distributional assumptions (2) there is no reliance on a central limit theorem and (3) there are no complicated formulas to memorize. All you need to know is the bootstrap principle. Suppose we have a random sample of size 10. Consider the pig blood loss data (treatment group) shown in Table 8.2, which reproduces the treatment data from Table 8.1.

Current Limitations Possible Solutions and Enhancement Technologies

Takes over to process this information further in its usual way. To improve the performance of a sensory implant, one therefore has to improve the way the information is delivered to the first intact neurons. Ideally, the implant would have to excite and inhibit these neurons in a pattern identical to the physiological paragon. This would involve several thousand electrode contacts in a volume of a few cubic millimeters - a setup that is unlikely ever to be realised. Alternatively, the (electrical) input output functions of a group of neurons may be simulated, so that an array of electrodes connected to neuronal tissue on one side and a signal processor on the other would just have to deliver stimuli in a charge pattern that equals the one that is present in a given group of neurons at a given time in response to a given environmental stimulus. This is, basically, where research and clinical application stands today. It remains to be seen to what extent it will be possible with these...

Eyeblink Conditioning

And translation of genes downstream of the CyclicAMP Response Element (CRE) DNA regulatory element (see reference 3 and Figure 14). A variety of prior block -type studies in a variety of model systems suggested that the CRE transcriptional pathway was involved in long-term memory. However, no mammalian behavioral model system had yet demonstrated that environmental signals associated with learning led to alterations in CRE-mediated gene expression. Impey and Storm undertook a measure study to assess this issue directly. They found that training for

Psychoanalytic Perspectives On Memory

Research on human memory helps us to understand the need for caution in these matters. It suggests that there are different kinds of memory systems and hence different types of memories. Certain sets of memories are consistently reactivated moment by moment. These memories concern the facts of our physical, mental and demographic identity. They orient us in the world. Conventionally, this is variously referred to as declarative or explicit2 or autobiographical memory. Declarative memory - the term I will use from now on - is the underlying organisation that allows us to consciously recall facts and events. It refers to the conscious memory for people, objects and places. It involves symbolic or imaginistic knowledge that allows facts and experiences to be called into conscious awareness in the absence of the things they stand for. This kind of memory includes semantic memory for general and personal facts and knowledge and episodic memory for specific events. There are also contents...

The Cerebral Cortex Is Functionally Compartmentalized

Primary Somatic Sensory Cortex

Motor area (precentral gyrus) (see Chapters 4 and 5). As shown in Figure 7.8, these well-defined areas comprise only a small fraction of the surface of the cerebral cortex. The majority of the remaining cortical area is known as association cortex, where the processing of neural information is performed at the highest levels of which the organism is capable among vertebrates, the human cortex contains the most extensive association areas. The association areas are also sites of long-term memory, and they control such human functions as language acquisition, speech, musical ability, mathematical ability, complex motor skills, abstract thought, symbolic thought, and other cognitive functions.

Memory and Learning Require the Cerebral Cortex and Limbic System

Septal Nucleus Basal Forebrain

Much of our knowledge about human memory formation and retrieval is based on studies of patients in whom stroke, brain injury, or surgery resulted in memory disorders. Such knowledge is then examined in more rigorous experiments in nonhuman primates capable of cognitive functions. From these combined approaches, we know that the prefrontal cortex is essential for coordinating the formation of memory, starting from a learning experience in the cerebral cortex, then processing the information and communicating it to the subcortical limbic structures. The prefrontal cortex receives sensory input from the parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes and emotional input from the limbic system. Drawing on skills such as language and mathematical ability, the pre-frontal cortex integrates these inputs in light of previously acquired learning. The prefrontal cortex can thus be considered the site of working memory, where new experiences are processed, as opposed to sites that consolidate the...

Spatial Vectorcardiography

Spatial vectorcardiography is distinctly different from the various vectorial methods of ECG interpretation, such as those of Sodi-Pallares et al.7 and Grant.56,57 In clinical practice and in teaching, both seem to be considered equal, but this is so only for pragmatic and didactic reasons. Although the spatial VCG and the ECG should each be studied as distinct methods, most electrocardiographers either memorize loop patterns or attempt to derive the leads with which they are familiar from the corresponding QRS loops. Thus bipolar standard and unipolar extremity leads are derived from the frontal plane more or less as when, in clinical ECG, they are derived from the electrical axis. To do this in spatial vector loops, the electrical axis is equated with the maximal QRS vector that extends from the point of origin of the loop to its farthest point. The unipolar precordial leads are derived from the horizontal plane loops. Leads thus derived are different from the usual precordial ECG...

Hierarchical Organization of Memory

Hierarchy Long Term Memory

FIGURE 2 Hierarchical organization of memory. Short- and long-term memory is subject to being learned by either conscious or unconscious processes. Similarly, memory can be recalled either consciously or unconsciously. Many forms of simple learning such as motor learning, simple associative conditioning, and non-associative learning can be learned and recalled unconsciously. More complex forms of learning typically involve conscious processes. Short-term working memory is listed as a separate category because it is essentially entirely conscious and not stored for more than a few seconds. FIGURE 2 Hierarchical organization of memory. Short- and long-term memory is subject to being learned by either conscious or unconscious processes. Similarly, memory can be recalled either consciously or unconsciously. Many forms of simple learning such as motor learning, simple associative conditioning, and non-associative learning can be learned and recalled unconsciously. More complex forms of...

Decision Support Systems

The broad field that is now referred to as artificial intelligence deals with the problems that have until recently only been able to be tackled by humans because their formulation and solutions require some abilities that only exist in humans (such as the ability to memorize, think, observe, learn, see and similar senses). To these belong problems such as speech and pattern recognition, chess playing and diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic medical decision-making. Turing 20 proposed an interesting test to find out if a computer exhibits intelligent behavior. His proposal was A computer could be considered to be thinking only when a human interviewer, conversing with both an unseen human being and unseen computer, could not determine which is which. This definition of artificial intelligence was focused on the comparison between the abilities of humans and the abilities of computers. Other definitions of artificial intelligence focus on decision-making and problem...

Conversion Disorder Dissociation And Hypnotic Trance

Implicitly, however, the stimuli do influence the patient's behaviour. These observations support the view that there are two memory systems the explicit memory system and the implicit memory system (Schacter, 1987) or memory with and without awareness (Jacoby & Dallas, 1981). A similar distinction is suggested for perception (Kihlstrom 1992b). Alongside implicit memory and perception, Kihlstrom (1992b) talks of unconscious emotion and cognition as information processes that can influence ongoing experience, thought and action, outside of the phenomenal awareness.

Comparing the Freudian and Cognitive Unconscious An Afterthought

Cognitive science now recognizes that consciousness is, as Freud perceived, merely the surface of a mental iceberg in that most cognitive processes, such as procedural memory, are unconscious. It is evident that the Freudian dynamic unconscious and the newly recognized cognitive unconscious represent quite different landscapes. But, I suggest, these landscapes are not entirely incompatible. The Freudian unconscious is implicitly conflictual and dynamic because of the central position given to the fact that repression controls access to consciousness. In the next chapter I will critically examine Freud's concept of repression, which I believe to be a weak link in Freudian theory. But even if we put the concept of repression aside as an explanation, there is unquestionably an involuntary and unconscious selective process that controls access to consciousness. In the Freudian unconscious, conflict is an implicit determinant in deciding what remains unconscious. Freud also believed in a...

Feeling and Potential Meaning

Psychoanalysts believe, beyond any shadow of a doubt, that the unconscious mind contains potential meaning. This may be one of the clearest areas of disagreement between psychoanalysis and cognitive psychologists. Psychoanalysis and cognitive scientists believe that the greater part of memory is unconscious, but most cognitive scientists and neuro-biologists consider implicit (unconscious) memory to be a form of procedural memory, the memory of motor acts or motor routines, memories that are not in themselves meaningful, as they are not charged with the potentiality to evoke feelings. The belief that the unconscious mind consists of procedural memory will influence one's definition of what is mental. Many cognitive scientists equate the mental with consciousness. This position is supported by a long tradition that included William James, who also believed that the term mental should be reserved for only what is conscious, what can be experienced. What one denotes by the

The paranoidschizoid position

We now know, for example, that babies are capable of relatively complex information processing, organisation and retention (i.e. they have an early functioning short-term memory system) (Stern, 1985 Gergely, 1991), and preferences (e.g. for the human face). Infant research has shown that at birth the baby reveals innate coordination of perception and action, evidenced by imitation of adults' facial gestures based on the availability of a short-term memory system. There is also empirical evidence to suggest that babies assume physical objects have cohesion, boundedness and rigidity.13 Gergely (1991) and Stern (1985) both argue that the key feature of these early capacities is the baby's sensitivity to abstract properties, not linked to particular sensory modalities babies are able to detect consistencies across modalities even more than modality specific, physical features. Overall, these various strands of research provide compelling evidence suggesting...

Alzheimers Disease Imaging A Multimodality Challenge

Train Four Percent Receptor Blockade

What then are the pros and cons of these imaging endpoints for AD 18F FDG PET is widely available and now reimbursed for some individuals for the diagnosis of AD. It has clear value to identify early disease and exclude confounding dementias from trial populations. The case for amyloid PET tracers is multifaceted. Tracers such as the Pittsburgh Compound-B 56 , the stilbene derivative SB-13 57 , FDDNP 58 and novel styrylbezoxazole derivatives, 59 may identify patients with high amyloid load to help enrich proof of concept trials with amyloid lowering therapies and perhaps later identify those suitable for preventive treatment. The question is whether they add value to 18F FDG or effectively give the same information since it can be argued that their distribution in areas of high lesion load mirrors the hypometabolism detected by 18F FDG 56,58 . It remains to be proved what the putative amyloid tracers are actually imaging in life. Tracer validation for proof of concept paradoxically...

Effects of Nicotine and Smoking on Clinical and Cognitive Deficits Associated With Schizophrenia

Nicotine Cognitive Effects

The Yale Program for Research in Smokers with Mental Illness has studied cognitive function in schizophrenic and nonpsychiatric control subjects as a function of smoking status (George et al. 2002a). Although schizophrenic subjects compared with control subjects had deficits in visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM) function, a task dependent in part on prefrontal cortical dopamine function (Williams and Goldman-Rakic 1995), smoking appeared to improve these deficits in schizophrenic subjects and impair them in control subjects after adjustment for differences in age, educational attainment, and depressive symptoms between the four comparison groups. However, when schizophrenic smokers quit smoking during the course of a 10-week smoking cessation trial using bu-propion hydrochloride (or placebo), deficits in VSWM were further impaired to the level of deficit in schizophrenic nonsmokers. In contrast, healthy control smokers who quit smoking in a smoking cessation trial with selegiline...

Substrates oflRAP

IRAP mediates the degradation of a number of small peptides in vitro, including Lys-bradykinin, vasopressin, met- and leu-enkephalin, dynorphin A, somatostatin, CCK-8, and neurokinin A (82-85). A number of the known substrates of IRAP, including vasopressin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin, are capable of facilitating learning in passive avoidance and spatial memory tasks (for review, see ref. 86). We postulate that the facilitation of memory by AT4 ligands may be a consequence of inhibition of the enzymatic activity of IRAP, thereby protecting its peptide substrates from degradation. Memory enhancement by blockade of peptidases has been demonstrated previously. ACE inhibitors improve memory in passive avoidance paradigms and in models of cognitive impairment (for review, see ref. 87). Moreover, inhibition of prolyl endopeptidase results in improvement in memory in aged (88) and scopolamine-treated (89) rats.


Make substantial changes, then ask your attorney. In general, any changes made to the deposition that are substantial will look damaging. Some jurisdictions will allow such substantial changes to the deposition and others will not. Read a deposition carefully. If there are any discrepancies in what you said in the deposition, as opposed to what you will say at trial, then prepare how to explain them. You should have a postdeposition meeting to assess the case and your ability to defend it successfully. You should also ask your attorney about reading other depositions in the case. For example, reading the plaintiff's deposition will show how he or she sees the case and what arguments may be used during the case. It is debatable whether you should sit in on other depositions. The potential advantage of sitting in on some depositions is that the plaintiff's expert and plaintiff may be more truthful in the presence of the defending physician. The disadvantage is that depositions take time...

Meter Selection

Meter features to consider include the required sample size, ease of use, sipping strips which use capillary action as opposed to direct application of a drop of blood on the strip, test time, meters that use sites other than the fingertip, accuracy and glucose range, meters that measure levels of whole-blood versus plasma glucose, memory capacity, available data-management software and its ease of use, temperature and altitude range, meter size and weight, large versus small screen and number size, ease of opening test-strip packages, individual foil-wrapped strips versus those stored in a vial, meter and strip costs, ease of coding the meter, and quality-control testing (Table 4).

The Mirror Test

Not be able to identify or model the mental states of other creatures or sympathize when witnessing the suffering of another animal. Humans routinely make inferences about what other people are feeling because of this capacity for self-awareness. Apparently, only a few other primates have the rudimentary capacity for self-consciousness, yet even those who pass the mirror test do not show a consistent pattern of being able to empathize with others. In general, some researchers have been critical of the mirror test, stating that chimpanzees may have clever minds, but they are blank minds. Chimpanzees may be able to learn, memorize, and problem solve sufficiently to pass the mirror test, but be unable to utilize their situation to take into account the experiences of others.


One contributing factor to the inability to clear infections is that, like the influenza and AIDS viruses, this parasite can rapidly mutate many of the proteins detected by antibodies. Perhaps most importantly, long-term memory does not seem to develop in infected individuals, so when someone is reinfected, the response is not much stronger than when that person was infected for the first time.


The THC content of high quality cannabis might be in the range 0.5-1 for large leaves, 1-3 for small leaves, 3-7 for flowering tops, 5-10 for bracts, 14-25 for resin, and up to 60 in cannabis oil. Higher amounts of THC are produced in selected strains known as skunk cannabis, so named because of their powerful smell flowering tops from skunk varieties might contain 10-15 THC. The THC content in cannabis products tends to deteriorate on storage, an effect accelerated by heat and light. Cannabis leaf and resin stored under ordinary conditions rapidly lose their activity and can be essentially inactive after about 2 years. A major change which occurs is oxidation in the cyclohexene ring resulting in conversion of THC into CBN. THC is more potent when smoked than when taken orally, its volatility allowing rapid absorption and immediate effects, so smoking has become the normal means of using cannabis. Any cannabinoid acids will almost certainly be decarboxylated upon heating, and thus the...

Signal Analysis

Other brain rhythms do not seem to be associated to idling states, but rather to active processes in the brain. They include the frontal b-rhythm, the 9-rhythm and the g-rhythm. The 9-waves (4-8 Hz) appear to originate from the hippocampus and reflect working memory processes (e.g., Klimesch, 1999). Oscillatory activity in the g frequency band has received a great deal of attention in recent years. It seems that neuronal assemblies representing different parts of the same object bind together by synchronous firing in the g frequency range, as has been shown in animal models (e.g., Gray et al., 1989) and in humans (e.g., Tallon-Baudry et al., 1996, 1997 Herrmann and Mecklinger, 2000). Hence, these oscillations most probably play a fundamental role in important cognitive faculties such as perception and memory. The above-mentioned fact that the so-called idling rhythms are suppressed by primary sensory or motor activity leads to the possibility of measuring cortical activity indirectly....

Chapter Summary

T., Athos, J., Figueroa, X. A., Pineda, V. V., Schaefer, M. L., Chavkin, C. C., Muglia, L. J., and Storm, D. R. (1999). Calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity is critical for hippocampus-dependent long-term memory and late phase LTP. Neuron 23 787-798.


This final section of the chapter brought us back to the issue raised at the very beginning of the chapter, that is, considering L-LTP as an analogue of forms of long-term memory that depend on changes in gene expression for their induction. It is very important to remember that the types of synaptic changes we have discussed in this chapter are functionally manifest as an alteration in the properties of a neuronal circuit in the CNS. Clearly, self-perpetuating molecular changes are necessary for very long-lasting effects, but the lasting effects are not the entirety of the memory. The maintenance of the synaptic change in the context of the circuit is what constitutes the memory. The self-perpetuating synaptic change is the mechanism for the maintenance of the memory. Thus, we see an interesting parallel between L-LTP and long-term memory. Throughout the last three chapters we have made the important molecular distinction between mechanisms for the induction, maintenance, and...

Chronic Effects

As indicated in Table 3, effects of chronic marijuana use were examined with the three tests of episodic memory used to examine effects of smoking a marijuana cigarette containing 19 mg of THC. In Buschke's Test, chronic marijuana users who used seven or more times weekly on average for the previous 2 yr or more (the heaviest usage group) showed deficits, in comparison to nonusers, for long-term retrieval and consistent long-term retrieval of high-imagery (but not low imagery) words (see Note 10) (6). These effects are illustrated in Fig. 2, as is a more equivocal difference among the user groups in effects of imagery on short-term retrieval. No effects of chronic marijuana use were observed in the paired-associate learning test or the text learning test. In a later study that also used Buschke's Test (7), subjects learned a list of words to a criterion of two consecutive perfect recalls during an initial session, followed by relearning of the same list, again to a criterion of two...


At present, at least two types of memory are recognized in the human brain--short-term memory and long-term memory. (1) Short-term memory. A common example of short-term memory is the ability to hold a phone number in mind for a number of seconds without memorizing it. Short-term memory is usually limited to about seven bits of information. (2) Long-term memory. A portion of the cerebral cortex known as the hippocampus is thought to be important in transferring information from short-term memory to long-term memory. If the hippocampus is nonfunctional, the individual can learn nothing, but his previously long-term memory remains intact.


Refers to different types of memory disorders. Individuals suffering from anterograde amnesia (ICD-10 R41.1) are severely impaired in their ability to form new lasting memories. While their short-term memory is usually intact, they forget everything they experience shortly afterwards. In contrast, people with retrograde amnesia (ICD-10 R41.2) are unable to recall events which occurred before onset of amnesia. A third type of memory disorder is so-called dissociative amnesia (ICD-10 F44.0) which is characterised by an inability to recall certain episodic or autobiographic memories usually related to traumatic or stressful events. Depending on whether the memory loss is either quite generalised or rather confined to a certain period of time, different subtypes of dissociative amnesia can be distinguished.

Robert I Block

This chapter summarizes the methods and results of studies in which the author examined the acute or chronic effects of marijuana on human associative processes and memory. Eleven tests used to assess marijuana's effects on associative processes, semantic memory, and episodic memory are described. Key Words A9-tetrahydrocannabinol acute effects associative processes chronic effects constrained associations episodic memory free associations free recall human learning marijuana memory paired-associate learning reaction time recall retrieval semantic memory THC.


Although it is a stretch to go from molecules to cognitive psychology, it is entertaining to think of sins for which protein turnover may be the underlying culprit. The easiest example is transience. Transience is simply the diminution of a particular memory over time. Your memory for recent events is more robust and detailed for recent events than for those from farther in your past. Memory has a half-life because the molecules that store it have a half-life. In the case of those memories stored using a mnemogenic, self-perpetuating reaction, the memory half-life is basically determined by the error rate of the underlying mnemogenic reaction as it replicates itself. 7. Roberson, E. D., and Sweatt, J. D. (1999). A biochemical blueprint for long-term memory. Learn. Mem. 6 381-388. 8. Bailey, C. H., Bartsch, D., and Kandel, E. R. (1996). Toward a molecular definition of long-term memory storage. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93 13445-13452.

Hypnosis And Memory

Although some have debated the interpretation and relevance of experimental research on hypnosis and memory (American Society of Clinical Hypnosis, 1995), in their analysis of recovered memories of abuse Pope & Brown (1996) considered that 'because hypnotic technique can enhance suggestibility and lead to the development of pseudomemories in some individuals, its use as a memory enhancement or memory-retrieval strategy seems questionable at best' (p. 59). The importance of understanding the processes involved, as well as the possible risks

Executive Functions

(WCST) has become the main measure of executive functioning in schizophrenia research (Palmer and Heaton 2000). This test involves matching a series of cards to one of four target cards on the basis of three forms of rule (color, shape, or number). Subjects are not told how to match the cards, but only whether their match is right or wrong hence, they are to work out the proper rule. After a certain number of responses, the rules change. Schizophrenic subjects have problems performing this task. Considerable interest in the WCST has been generated by the demonstration that normal controls activate prefrontal cortex when performing this task, but schizophrenic patients do not (Weinberger et al. 1986). However, there is also evidence that cortical-subcortical connections are relevant to these functions as well (Cummings 1993). Deficits in executive functions (as well as vigilance and working memory) appear to be important for achieving various forms of social and functional outcome, and...

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