Comparison of the genomes of the pathogenic L. monocytogenes and the nonphatogenic L. innocua has led to the identification of several new L. monocy-togenes virulence factors that are absent from the L. innocua genome. One of these new proteins is Vip, an LPXTG-anchored cell wall protein required for the invasion of Caco-2 and L2071 cell lines (Cabanes et al., 2005). The cellular receptor of Vip is Gp96, an endoplasmic reticulum-resident chaperone that can also be present at the plasma membrane (Cabanes et al., 2005). Gp96 has been implicated in modulation of the immune response by affecting the cellular trafficking of several molecules, including Toll-like receptors (Tsan and Gao, 2004). Thus, it has been suggested that Vip could use Gp96 not only as a receptor for invasion but it could also sequester Gp96 to subvert immunological response during the course of infection (Cabanes et al., 2005).
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