In addition to field studies that indicate survival and persistence of L. monocytogenes in agricultural environments over time periods up to 6 years (Fenlon 1999), a number of laboratory studies have also provided evidence that Listeria spp. survive in animal feces (Dijkstra 1971) and agricultural soil (Fenlon 1999), including manure-amended soil (Jiang et al. 2004), for prolonged time periods. For example, Listeria spp. have been shown to survive in bovine feces from 182 to 2,190 days (Fenlon 1999), for several weeks in soil (Jiang et al. 2004; Nicholson et al. 2005), and for >56 days (Fenlon 1999) in sewage sludge cake sprayed onto fields.
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