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• Q-TOF

FIGURE 11.1 A generalized flow scheme that indicates the fundamental elements of LC-MS-based bioanalysis. Abbreviations: LLE = liquid-liquid extraction; SPE = solid-phase extraction; RAM = restricted-access media; TFC = turbulent flow liquid chromatography; API = atmospheric-pressure ionization; APCI = atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization; ESI = electrospray ionization; SQMS = single-quadrupole mass spectrometry; TQMS = triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry; TOF = time-of-flight; Q-TOF = quadrupole TOF. (Reprinted from Ackermann et al. [4], with permission from John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)

FIGURE 11.1 A generalized flow scheme that indicates the fundamental elements of LC-MS-based bioanalysis. Abbreviations: LLE = liquid-liquid extraction; SPE = solid-phase extraction; RAM = restricted-access media; TFC = turbulent flow liquid chromatography; API = atmospheric-pressure ionization; APCI = atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization; ESI = electrospray ionization; SQMS = single-quadrupole mass spectrometry; TQMS = triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry; TOF = time-of-flight; Q-TOF = quadrupole TOF. (Reprinted from Ackermann et al. [4], with permission from John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)

parts. The basic elements in the bioanalytical flow path are depicted in Figure 11.1. The process begins with samples that contain target analytes present at physiologically relevant concentrations in a given biomatrix. Although a number of biomatrices may be considered (e.g., tissue, urine, liver), plasma will be assumed as the sample matrix for the present discussion. Regardless of the path taken, the endpoint is the mass spectrometer. It is for this reason that method development commonly begins with procedures to establish conditions for ionization and detection prior to the investigation of conditions for chromatography and extraction. Each of the aforementioned components (Figure 11.1) is addressed in the following sections. The discussion begins with MS considerations and is followed by a review of advances in sample preparation strategies and LC.

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