Caveolin Diffusion Coefficients

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AA see amino acid Ab see amyloid b-peptide ABCA1 see ATP-binding cassette transporter-Al Abl 129-130

- actin remodeling 130-131

- caveolin kinase 120, 129

- caveolin phosphorylation 121 acceptor, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy 59 acceptor channels, FRET 146 ACTH see adrenocorticotropic hormone actin cytoskeleton

- attachment 127-129

- dynamics of caveolin 199-200

- dynamin 83

- endocytosis 73

- stabilisation 130

actin/plasma membrane attachment sites, phosphorylation 128 actin polymerization 131 actin remodeling 127

- insulin-induced 131 activation, Csk 125-127 activation-induced cell death (AICD), lipid rafts 157 acylation, signal transduction 92 AD see Alzheimer's disease ADAM10, metalloprotease 214 adaptor proteins, multifunctional 249 adhesion complex, focal 198-199 adhesion molecules, immunological synapse

151 adipocytes

- caveolin 199

- caveolin phosphorylation 117

- signaling pathways 117

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 256-257

affinity conversion, lipid rafts 157 AFM see atomic force microscopy aggregation, membrane proteins 32 aging, gate theory 195 aging process, caveolin 195 AICD see activation-induced cell death Alzheimer's disease (AD) 205

- role of rafts 215-223

amino acid (AA), caveolins domains 25 amino-terminus, caveolin-1 123 amphiphilic dye, LAURDAN 5 amyloid ß-peptide (Ab) 215-217 amyloid precursor protein (APP)

- cleavage 215-223

- processing 205-223 anchored protein (AP)

- GPI- 8, 54, 63, 92, 207, 214, 257 angiogenesis, caveolin-eNOS interaction

241-242 anisotropy, measurements 61 annular lipids, transmembrane signaling 143 anoikis, cellular resistance 253-254 anomalous diffusion, immunological synapse 152 antennopedia (AP) peptide 102 anti-proliferative activity, caveolin-1 252 antibodies, diffusion-based measurements 55 antigen-presenting cell, immunological synapse see APC antisense suppression techniques, caveolin-1 253

AP see also antennopedia, see anchored protein

APC, immunological synapse 150 apical membrane

- basolateral protein exclusion 14

- epithelial cells 9-10

apical t-SNARE, syntaxin 3 16 APP see amyloid precursor protein arachidonyl ethanolamine plasmalogens 94 ARP2/3, actin polymerization 130 artificial lipid membranes, DRM 50 asialogangliosides, signal transduction 94 asymmetric membrane protein, bending forces 33-35 atomic force microscopy 149 ATP-binding cassette transporter-Al 97 autocorrelation function, FCS 147 autofluorescence, FRET 146 autophosphorylation, signal transduction 104

b baby hamster kidney, electron micrographs 80

BACE see b-site APP cleavage enzyme basolateral proteins, exclusion from apical membrane 14 bending energy, invaginated membrane domains 30 bending forces, asymmetric membrane protein 33-35 bending rigidity, biomembranes 27-28 b-site APP cleavage enzyme (BACE) 215-218

BHK cells see baby hamster kidney bilayer see lipid bilayer biomembranes

- bending rigidity 27-28

- see membranes blocked caveolin phosphorylation 119 Bodipy-PC, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy 57 breast cancer, caveolin-1 expression 252 budding, coat-driven/domain-induced 15 buds, formation 34-37 bulb radius (preferred), caveolae 36-37

C-terminal, caveolins 25, 177 C-terminal region, endocytosis 70 Ca2+ signal, voltage gated channels 154 calciumbound calmodulin (CaM) 233

- eNOS enzyme activity 236 CaM see calciumbound calmodulin cancer progression, role of caveolin-1

249-259

carboxyl terminal fragment (CTF), APP 215 cardiac myocytes

- caveolin-eNOS interaction 244-245

- eNOS expression 234

cargo sorting, membrane traffic 15

caveola-cholesterol trafficking cycle, regulation 184-185 caveolae 1-17, 131, 175-176

- caveolin oligomer mixing 35

- cholesterol localization 182-183

- constitutively internalization 81-82

- curvature 12

- disruption 40

- endocytosis 69, 75-81

- endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) 233-246

- first observation 25

- formation 30-31

- function 199-200

- invaginated lipid rafts 28-31

- labeling 80

- lipid composition 12

- lipid rafts 206-207

- lipids 93-95

- membrane domains 71

- membrane tension 38-42

- membrane traffic 12-17

- origin of name 10

- preferred bulb radius 36-37

- proteins 95-98

- scaffold motif 99

- scaffolded membrane domains 10-12

- shaping forces 25-42

- signal transduction 91-114

- signaling 115-140

- structure 96

- subpopulations 84

- thermodynamic phase separation of membrane proteins 35-38

- water permeability 94

caveolar coat protein, caveolin-1 249 caveolar endocytosis, consensus model 85 caveolar function, dynamin 83 caveolar invaginations 84-85 caveolar-like domains (CLDs) 210 caveolar proteins, FC depletion 102 caveolar vesicles, free 73 caveolin 11, 101-102, 175

- contact site 99

- contribution to cell-cycle regulation 40

- homo-oligomers 33

- insulin receptor 117-118

- internalization 127

- intracellular chaperone complexes 175-194

- overexpression 176

- phosphorylation see caveolin phosphorylation

- protein acylation 186

- raft immobilization 84-85

- signal transduction 95

- signaling pathways 116-117 caveolin-1

- expression 251, 257-258

- regulation 250

- role in tumor cell survival and cancer progression 249-259

- tyr14 phosphorylation 256-257 caveolin-associated structures, intracellular

82-83

caveolin binding motif (CBM) 235-236 caveolin-eNOS interaction

- angiogenesis 241-242

- cardiac myocytes 244-245

- lipoproteins 239-241

- vasodilation and endothelial permeability 242-244

caveolin-eNOS regulatory cycle 236-238 caveolin family, endocytosis 70 caveolin kinase 120 caveolin localization, caveolae 182-183 caveolin oligomers, mixing on caveolae 35 caveolin phosphorylation 115-140

- adipocytes 117

- blocked 119

- insulin-induced 119

- signaling pathway 121

- stress-induced 118-119

- tyrosine see caveolin tyrosine phosphory-lation caveolin protein structure 177-178 caveolin rafts, morphology 40 caveolin scaffolding domain (CSD) 235-236, 250

- pro-survival action of caveolin-1 255

- regulation of angiogenesis 242

- signal transduction 98-101 caveolin systems, mutant 37-38 caveolin tyrosine kinases 123

caveolin tyrosine phosphorylation 256-257

- signaling pathways 116-123 caveolins domains, amino acid 25 caveosomes 82-83

cbc see critical budding concentration CBM see caveolin binding motif CD36, scavenger receptors 187 cell compartments see compartments cell-cycle regulation, contribution of caveolin 40

cell death, activation-induced 157

cell differentiation, caveolin-1 250 cell fusion 155-156 cell membrane

- basic organization 1-3

- mechanical regulation 41

- phase separation 5-7

- see also membranes cell migration, phosphorylation 130 cell shape, roles of caveolae and caveolin 195-202

cell-surface proteins, distribution patterns 144

cell survival, caveolin-1 253-256 cell types, caveolae 176 cells in culture, physiological state 180-182 cellular motility 196 cellular organelles, membrane traffic 12 cellular stresses, caveolin phosphorylation 118

central supramolecular activation cluster see cSMAC

ceramidase, signal transduction 95 ceramide, signal transduction 94 chaperone complexes 188

- caveola-cholesterol trafficking cycle 184-185

- intracellular 175-194 chemical affinity, raft hypothesis 45 chemical incompatibility, influence on lipid domain shape 29-30 chemical interaction, lipid rafts 50 cholera toxin

- endocytosis 75-81

- raft and caveolar endocytosis 14 cholera toxin B, diffusion-based measurements 52

cholesterol

- APP processing 222

- caveolin 183-184

- cell membrane 2

- fluorescence correlation spectroscopy 57

- lipid rafts 205-206

- low-density lipoprotein (LDL) 239-241

- relative concentration, caveolae 175

- signal transduction 91-114

- ternary phase diagram 4 cholesterol-binding drugs, endocytosis 77 cholesterol-binding proteins, caveolae 115 cholesterol-containing domains, raft hypothesis 45 cholesterol depletion

- PrPc conversion 209

- strong 216 cholesterol homeostasis

- endocytosis 185

- regulation 187

cholesterol localization, caveolae 182-183 cholesterol recognition amino acid consensus see CRAC cholesterol/sphingolipid-rich microdomains 91

cholesterol transport, specialized tissues 188 chronotropic effects, negative 244-245 clathrin-coated pits

- endocytosis 76

- internalization of PrPc 209-210 clathrin-mediated endocytosis, caveolae 69,

CLDs see caveolar-like domains CLSM 165

cluster size, lipid microdomains, ERB2 164 clustered cell-surface distribution, immunological synapse 152 clustered raft domains 8-9 cmc see critical micelle concentration co-clustering 154

co-immunoprecipitation, caveolins 117 co-localization

- endocytosis 78

- immunological synapse 153

- lipid rafts 159, 162

- membrane proteins 142 co-mobility, protein 147

coat-driven budding, cargo sorting and vesicle formation 15 coat proteins, caveolae 115 coats, protein 13 columnar epithelia 9 compartments, intracellular 208-210, 215-217

confluent human umbilical vein endothelial cells 181

confocal laser scanning microscopy, domain size 144 conformational diseases 205 conformational transition, PrPc-PrPSc 211-214

consensus model, caveolar endocytosis 85 constitutively internalization, caveolae 81-82 contact site, proteins 99 cooperative interactions, lipid microdomains 163

coronary arteries, endothelial cells 234 correlation spectroscopy, fluorescence 57-58 CRAC 98 CRAC-1 101

critical budding concentration (cbc) 34, 37 critical micelle concentration 34 cross-correlation coefficient, fluorescence distributions 145 CSD see caveolin scaffolding domain Csk 127, 257

- activation 125-127

- phosphocaveolin 124-125

- Src-family kinases 125 cSMAC, immunological synapse 150 CT

- endocytosis 75-76, 78

- internalization by caveolae 81 CT-B, internalization 79, 84 CT-B-gold, endocytosis 76

CT-B-HRP conjugate, incubated BHK cells 80

CTF see carboxyl terminal fragment CTL, immunological synapse 150 CtxB see cholera toxin B curvature

- caveolae 12

- spontaneous 27 cyclodextrin, FC depletion 104 cyclosporine, chaperone complexes 184 cysteines

- caveolin 178

- protein acylation 186 cytofacial leaflet, endocytosis 183 cytokine receptor assembly, lipid rafts

156-162

cytoskeleton mesh, single-molecule tracking 53

cytotoxic T cell see CTL d

Danielli-Davson model 1 deformable fluid membranes, physical modeling 26-29 dehydroergosterol, signal transduction 94 depletion, cholesterol 209, 216

detergent-free isolation, caveolae 93 detergent-insoluble glycolipid (DIG) 46 detergent-resistant membranes (DRM) 2, 46,

49-51, 206, 209, 215-217 dialkylcarbocyanine see DiI 1,1'-dieicosanyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbo-

cyanine perchlorate see DiI-C20 differentiated primary cells, signal trans-

duction 91 diffusion-based measurements, raft hypothesis 52-58 diffusion constants, FRAP 56

diffusion process, membranes 58 diffusion time, FCS 148 2-(4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diazas-indacene-3-pentanoyl)-1-hexadeca-noyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine see Bodipy-PC DIG see detergent-insoluble glycolipid diglyceride, signal transduction 94 DiI-C20, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy 57

dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine (DLPC), fluorescence correlation spectroscopy 57

dimerization

- lipid microdomains 163

- signal transduction 104 1,2-dio-leoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanol-

amine-fluorescein see FL-DOPE dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), fluorescence correlation spectroscopy 57 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanol-

amine-fluorescein see FL-DPPE dipole moment, molecular 5 diseases

- Alzheimer's see Alzheimer's disease

- conformational 205

- prion 205-223 distributions

- clustered cell-surface 152

- fluorescence 144-145

- GM1 gangliosides 160

DLPC see dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine domain energy, in relation to domain shape and membrane tension 39 domain-induced budding, cargo sorting and vesicle formation 15 domain shape

- in relation to domain energy and membrane tension 39

domain size, determination 144-145 domains

- caveolin 25, 177-178

- caveolin scaffolding see caveolin scaffolding domain

- MHC I molecules 152

- micro- see microdomains

donor, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy 59

donor channel, FRET 146 donor photobleaching see pbFRET

downstream signaling cascades, tyrosine phosphorylation 123 DPPC see dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine DRM see detergent-resistant membranes Duchènne muscular dystrophy, caveolae number 40 dynamin

- caveolar function S3

- transendothelial transport l4 dynamin-1 mutant, endocytosis S1

Echovirus 1 l5 ECM see extracellular matrix effective membrane temperature 2l EGF 11l

- receptor, lipid microdomains 163

- signal transduction 96 electron microscopy, lipid rafts 51 EM see electron microscopy endocytic machinery 69 endocytic marker, constitutively inter-

nalization S1 endocytic pathways, caveolae 1l6 endocytic vesicles, free S3 endocytosis 69

- caveolae-mediated 85, 200-201

- cholera toxin l5-81

- independent pathways S4 endoplasmic reticulum (ER), PrPc-PrPSc transconformation 20S endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi-intermediate-

compartment see ER-GIC endosomes

- APP cleaving pathways 218

- caveosomes communication S2 endothelial cells, coronary arteries 234 endothelial nitric oxide synthase see eNOS endothelial permeability, caveolin-eNOS interaction 242-244

endothelial tube formation, stimulation by statins 241 endothelin receptor-A, scaffold sequence 99 endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation

242-243 energy, bending 30

energy barrier, between flat and budded caveolae states 3l-39 energy transfer process, fluorescence 59 eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) l0

- and caveolae 233-246

- protein acylation 186

- signal transduction 9S eNOS-caveolin interaction

- angiogenesis 241-242

- cardiac myocytes 244-245

- lipoproteins 239-241

- vasodilation and endothelial permeability 242-244

eNOS interacting protein (NOSIP) 237-238 eNOS traffic inducer (NOSTRIN) 237-238 epithelia, columnar 9 epithelial cells, apical membrane 9-10 epitope accessibility, caveolae determination 179

ER see endoplasmic reticulum ER-associated degradation (ERAD) 208 ER-GIC 182

ERAD see ER-associated degradation ErbB2, lipid microdomains 163 estrogen uptake, caveola 185-186 exclusion, due to phase separation 15 exofacial leaflet, endocytosis 183 expression

- caveolin-1, heterologous 252-254

- caveolin-1, in human cancer 251

- caveolins 178-182 extracellular matrix (ECM) 198-199 extracellular signals, caveolin phosphory-

lation 124

extracytoplasmic proteins, raft hypothesis 48 ezetimibe, cholesterol transport 188

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