Fig. 7.30 Examples of the stimulation of protein modification by ceramide and subsequent cellular responses. Modified from Perry and Hannun (1998) with kind permission of the authors and Elsevier Science.
is a potent mitogen and can reverse the effects of ceramide on apoptosis. It can also cause release of calcium from internal stores. The mitogenic effects are probably through MAP kinases while cytoske-letal effects are quite common.
Other sphingosine derivatives such as ceramide 1-phosphate and lactosylceramide have also been reported to regulate cellular function, but they have not been nearly as well studied as ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine 1-phosphate. However, two examples of the multiple effects of different sphingoid lipid messengers are shown in Fig. 7.31.
It is staggering how many cellular events seem to
be influenced by sphingolipid-derived messengers and, in only just over a decade, we have learnt much. But, at the same time, there is much still to elucidate and the next decade will undoubtedly be very busy in that regard!
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