1 -monoacyl-phospholipid (Lyso-phospholipid)
Fig. 7.11 The 'Lands Mechanism' for substitution of the acyl species at the sn-2 position of phospholipids.
detergents (Triton X-100 is usually used) it shows roughly equal activity towards diacyl- and mono-acylphospholipids. The enzyme appears to have two distinct binding sites and the intermediate lysophospholipid must move from one to the other during hydrolysis.
In contrast to phospholipase B, lysopho-spholipases are widely distributed and are found in micro-organisms, bee venoms and mammalian tissues. Many of them have limited activity towards intact phospholipids.
In both heart and liver there are two isoforms - a large size (63kDa) that also catalyses transacyla-tions and a small form (22 kDa) that only catalyses hydrolysis.
An obvious function of lysophospholipases is to prevent a significant build-up of lytic mono-acylphospholipids, which would clearly damage membrane function. In addition, the transacylation property of some lysophospholipases suggests that they could play a significant role in molecular species re-modelling by a process that would be independent of the Lands mechanism (Fig. 7.11).
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