Stressactivated protein kinase signalling pathways

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The principle of a signal transduction pathway was introduced in Chapter 5. An extensively discussed system in that chapter was the insulin/IGF receptor, which proved to be associated with the regulation of longevity in various animals. The insulin-signalling pathway relays a hormonal signal into a cellular response, via a cascade of molecular interactions, eventually leading to inac-tivation of a transcription factor. We saw the same principle in the TOR and Ras pathways acting upon body size in insects and in the phytochrome signalling pathway regulating shade avoidance in plants. The principle of signal transduction is also employed in one of the most elaborate stress-responsive systems, the mitogen-activated

Table 6.1 Overview of stress-related transcription factors and consensus sequences of their DNA binding sites (http:www.gene-regulation.com/ pub/databases.html)

Transcription

DNA-binding site

Consensus sequence

Context

factor

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Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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