Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis

Chemo Secrets From a Breast Cancer Survivor

Breast Cancer Survivors

Get Instant Access

1. Eberth CJ. Zur Entwicklung des Epitheliomas (Cholesteatomas) dur Pia under der Lungs. Virchow's Arch 1870; 49:51-63.

2. Posner, JB. "Leptomeningeal Metastases." In Neurological complication of cancer, Posner JB, Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Co., 1995.

3. Grossman SA, Krabak MJ. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. Cancer Treat Rev 1999; 25:103-1979.

4. DeAngelis LM. Current diagnosis and treatment of leptomeningeal metastasis. J Neurooncol 1998;38:245-52.

5. Freilich RJ, Seidman AD, DeAngelis LM. Central nervous system progression of metastatic breast cancer in patients treated with paclitaxel. Canccr 1995; 76:232-6.

6. Bishop JR Jr, Moul JW, Maldonado L, McLeod DG. Transitional cell carcinomatous meningitis after M-VAC (methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin) chemotherapy. Urology 1990; 36:373-7.

7. Posner JB, Chernik NL. Intracranial metastasis from systemic cancer. Adv Neurol 1978; 19:575-587.

8. Glass JP, Melamed M, Chernik NL, Posner JB. Malignant cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): The meaning of a positive cytology. Neurology 1979; 29:1369-1375.

9. Olson ME, Chernik NL, Posner JB. Infiltration of the leptomeninges by systemic cancer. A clinical and pathologic study. Arch Neurol 1974; 30:122-37.

10. Wasserstrom WR, Glass JP, Posner JB. Diagnosis and treatment of leptomeningeal metastases from solid tumors: experience with 90 patients. Cancer 1982; 49:759-72.

11. Balm M, Hammack J. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. Presenting features and prognostic factors. Arch Neurol 1996; 53:626-32.

12. Aisner J, Aisner SC, Ostrow S, Govindan S, Mummert K, Wiernik P. Meningeal carcinomatosis from small cell carcinoma of the lung. Consequence of improved survival. Acta Cytol 1979;23:292-9.

13. Aroney RS, Dalley DN, Chan WK, Bell DR, Levi JA. Meningeal carcinomatosis in small cell carcinoma of the lung. Am J Med 1981; 71:26-32.

14. Balducci L, Little DD, Khansur T, Steinberg MH. Carcinomatous meningitis in small cell lung cancer. Am J Med Sci 1984; 287:31-3.

15. Rosen ST, Aisner J, Makuch RW, et al. Carcinomatous leptomeningitis in small cell lung cancer: a clinicopathologic review of the National Cancer Institute experience. Medicine (Baltimore). 1982;61:45-53.

16. Auperin A, Arriagada R, Pignon JP, et al. RT for Small cell. Prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small-cell lung cancer in complete remission. Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation Overview Collaborative Group. N Engl J Med 1999; 341:476-84.

17. Jayson GC, Howell A, Harris M, Morgenstern G, Chang J, Ryder WD. Carcinomatous meningitis in patients with breast cancer. An aggressive disease variant. Cancer 1994; 74:3135-41.

18. Tsukada Y, Fouad A, Pickren JW, Lane WW. Central nervous system metastasis from breast carcinoma. Autopsy study. Cancer 1983; 52:2349-54.

19. Yap HY, Yap BS, Tashima CK, DiStefano A, Blumenschein GR. Meningeal carcinomatosis in breast cancer. Cancer 1978; 42:283-6.

20. De la Monte SM, Hutchins GM, Moore GW. Estrogen and progesterone receptors in prediction of metastatic behavior of breast carcinoma. Am J Med 1984; 76:11-7.

21. Amer MH, Al-Sarraf M, Baker LH, Vaitkevicius VK. Malignant melanoma and central nervous system metastases: incidence, diagnosis, treatment and survival. Cancer 1978; 42:660-8.

22. Crino PB, Sater RA, Sperling M, Katsetos CD. Renal cell carcinomatous meningitis: pathologic and immunohistochemical features. Neurology 1995; 45:189-91.

23. Mencel PJ, DeAngelis LM, Motzer RJ. Hormonal ablation as effective therapy for carcinomatous meningitis from prostatic carcinoma. Cancer 1994; 73:1892-4.

24. Strady C, Ricciarelli A, Nasca S, Liautaud-Roger F, Coninx P. Carcinomatous meningitis and solid tumours. Oncol Rep 2000; 7:203-7.

25. Fisher MA, Weiss RB. Carcinomatous meningitis in gastrointestinal malignancies. South Med J 1979; 72:930-2.

26. Mayer RJ, Berkowitz RS, Griffiths CT. Central nervous system involvement by ovarian carcinoma: a complication of prolonged survival with metastatic disease. Cancer 1978;


27. Vadmal MS, Brones C, Farmer PM. Recurrent adenocarcinoma of the fallopian tube presenting as leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. Ann Clin Lab Sci 1996; 26:119-21.

28. Aboulafia DM, Taylor LP, Crane RD, Yon JL, Rudolph RH. Carcinomatous meningitis complicating cervical cancer: a clinicopathologic study and literature review. Gynecol Oncol 1996;60:313-8.

29. Redman BG, Tapazoglou E, Al-Sarraf M. Meningeal carcinomatosis in head and neck cancer. Report of six cases and review of the literature. Cancer 1986; 58:2656-61.

30. Barnard RO, Parsons M. Carcinoma of the thyroid with leptomeningeal dissemination following the treatment of a toxic goitre with 131-1 and methyl thiouracil. Case with a coexisting intracranial dermoid. J Neurol Sci 1969; 8:299-306.

31. Kramer K, Kushner B, Heller G, Cheung NK. Neuroblastoma metastatic to the central nervous system. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Experience and A Literature Review. Cancer 2001; 91:1510-9.

32. Eggers SD, Salomao DR, Dinapoli RP, Vernino S. Paraneoplastic and metastatic neurologic complications of Merkel cell carcinoma. Mayo Clin Proc 2001; 76:327-30.

33. Nagourney RA, Hedaya R, Linnoila M, Schein PS. Carcinoid carcinomatous meningitis. Ann Intern Med 1985; 102:779-82.

34. Kline RM, Oseas RS, Jolley SG, et al. Leptomeningeal metastasis from a paraspinal rhabdomyosarcoma with a der(13)t(l;13)(q23;q32) in a 14-month-old boy. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1997;98:97-101.

35. Begemann M, Rosenblum MK, Loh J, et al. Leptomeningeal Metastases from recurrent squamous cell cancer of the skin. J Neurooncol 2003; 63: 295-298.

36. Thompson SR, Veness MJ, Morgan GJ, Shannon J, Kenech JG. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis from squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx. Australas Radiol 2003; 47: 325-330.

37. Zhu JJ, Padillo O, Duff J, Hsi BL, Fletcher JA, Querfurth H. Cavernous sinus and leptomeningeal metastases arising from a squamous cell carcinoma of the face: case report. Neurosurgery 2004; 54: 492-8.

38. Kokkoris CP. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. How does cancer reach the pia-arachnoid? Cancer 1983;51:154-60.

39. Price RA and Johnson WW. The central nervous system in childhood leukemia. I. The arachnoid. Cancer 1973; 58:520-533.

40. Norris LK, Grossman SA, Olivi A. Neoplastic meningitis following surgical resection of isolated cerebellar metastasis: a potentially preventable complication. J Neurooncol 1997; 32:215-23.

41. van der Ree TC, Dippel DW, Avezaat CJ, Sillevis Smitt PA, Vecht CJ, van den Bent MJ. Leptomeningeal metastasis after surgical resection of brain metastases. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1999; 66:225-7.

42. Klein P, Haley EC, Wooten GF, VandenBerg SR. Focal cerebral infarctions associated with perivascular tumor infiltrates in carcinomatous leptomeningeal metastases. Arch Neurol 1989; 46:1149- 52.

43. Siegal T, Mildworf B, Stein D, Melamed E. Leptomeningeal metastases: reduction in regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive impairment. Ann Neurol 1985; 17:100-2.

44. Kaplan JG, DeSouza TG, Farkash A, et al. Leptomeningeal metastases: comparison of clinical features and laboratory data of solid tumors, lymphomas and leukemias. J Neurooncol 1990;9:225-9.

45. van Oostenbrugge RJ, Hopman AH, Arends JW, Ramaekers FC, Twijnstra A. The value of interphase cytogenetics in cytology for the diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastases. Neurology 1998; 51:906-8.

46. Wolfgang G, Marcus D, Ulrike S. LC: clinical syndrome in different primaries. J Neurooncol 1998; 38:103-10.

47. Tham LC, Millward MJ, Lind MJ, Cantwell BM. Metastatic breast cancer presenting with diabetes insipidus. Acta Oncol 1992; 31:679-80.

48. Oster JR, Perez GO, Larios O, Emery WE, Bourgoignie JJ. Cerebral salt wasting in a man with carcinomatous meningitis. Arch Intern Med 1983; 143:2187-8.

49. Broderick JP, Cascino TL. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus in a patient with leptomeningeal cancer. Mayo Clin Proc. 1987; 62:835-7.

50. Marcus FS, Dandolos EM, Friedman MA. Meningeal carcinomatosis in breast cancer presenting as central hypoventilation: a case report with a brief review of the literature. Cancer 1981;47:982-4.

51. Weitzner MA, Olofsson SM, Forman AD. Patients with malignant meningitis presenting with neuropsychiatric manifestations. Cancer 1995; 76:1804-8.

52. Sozzi G, Marotta P, Piatti L. Vagoglossopharyngeal neuralgia with syncope in the course of carcinomatous meningitis. Ital J Neurol Sci 1987; 8:271-5.

53. Guarino M, Stracciari A, Cirignotta F, D'Alessandro R, Pazzaglia P. Neoplastic meningitis presenting with ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia (Miller-Fisher syndrome) Arch Neurol 1995;52:443-4.

54. Glantz MJ, Cole BF, Glantz LK, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid cytology in patients with cancer: minimizing false-negative results. Cancer 1998; 82:733-9.

55. Chamberlain MC, Kormanik PA, Glantz MJ. A comparison between ventricular and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid cytology in adult patients with leptomeningeal metastases. J Neuro-Oncol 2001;3:42-5.

56. Rogers LR, Duchesneau PM, Nunez C, et al. Comparison of cisternal and lumbar CSF examination in leptomeningeal metastasis. Neurology 1992; 42:1239-41.

57. Raizer JJ, DeAngelis LM. Cerebral sinus thrombosis diagnosed by MRI and MR venography in cancer patients. Neurology 2000; 54:1222-6.

58. van Zanten AP, Twijnstra A, Ongerboer de Visser BW, van Heerde P, Hart AA, Nooyen WJ. Cerebrospinal fluid tumour markers in patients treated for meningeal malignancy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1991; 54:119-23.

59. Schold SC, Wasserstrom WR, Fleisher M, Schwartz MK, Posner JB. Cerebrospinal fluid biochemical markers of central nervous system metastases. Ann Neurol 1980; 8:597-604.

60. Lampl Y, Paniri Y, Eshel Y, Sarova-Pinchas I. Alkaline phosphatase level in CSF in various brain tumors and pulmonary carcinomatous meningitis. J Neurooncol 1990; 9:35-40.

61. Sato Y, Ohta Y, Kaji M, Oizumi K, Kaji M. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 in cerebrospinal fluid and within malignant cells in a case of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998; 65:402-3.

62. Castro MP, McDonald TJ, Qualman SJ, Odorisio TM. Cerebrospinal fluid gastrin releasing peptide in the diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastases from small cell carcinoma. Cancer 2001;91:2122-6.

63. Fleisher M, Wasserstrom WR, Schold SC, Schwartz MK, Posner JB. Lactic dehydrogenase isoenzymes in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with systemic cancer. Cancer 1981 Jun; 47:2654-9.

64. Twijnstra A, van Zanten AP, Nooyen WJ, Hart AA, Ongerboer de Visser BW. Cerebrospinal fluid beta 2-microglobulin: a study in controls and patients with metastatic and non-metastatic neurological diseases. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 1986; 22:387-91.

65. Twijnstra A, van Zanten AP, Nooyen WJ, Ongerboer de Visser BW. Sensitivity and specificity of single and combined tumour markers in the diagnoses of leptomeningeal metastases from breast cancer. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1986: 49; 1246-50.

66. Siegal T, Ovadia H, Yatsiv I, Abramsky O. CSF myelin basic protein levels in leptomeningeal metastases. Relationship to disease activity. J Neurol Sci 1987; 78:165-73.

67. Zandman-Goddard G, Matzncr Y, Konijn AM, Hershko C. Cerebrospinal fluid ferritin in malignant CNS involvement. Cancer 1986; 58:1346-9.

68. Moseley RP, Oge K, Shafqat S, et al. HMFG1 antigen: a new marker for carcinomatous meningitis. Int J Cancer 1989; 44:440-4.

69. Nakamura S, Nagano I, Yoshioka M, et al. Immunocytochemical detection of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in infiltrating tumor cells in the cerebrospinal fluid from five patients with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. Acta Neurol Scand 1995; 91:137-40.

70. Stockhammer G, Poewe W, Burgstaller S, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor in CSF: a biological marker for carcinomatous meningitis. Neurology 2000;54:1670-6.

71. Friedberg MH, Glantz MJ, Klempner MS, Cole BF, Perides G. Specific matrix metallproteinase profiles in the cerebrospinal fluid correlated with the presence of malignant astrocytoma, brain metastases, and carcinomatous meningitis. Cancer 1998; 82: 923-930.

72. Nagai A, Terashima M, Harada T, et al. Cathepsin B and H activities and cystatin C concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with leptomeningeal metastasis. Clin Chim Acta 2003; 329: 53-60.

73. Cibas ES, Malkin MG, Posner JB, Melamed MR. Detection of DNA abnormalities by flow cytometry in cells from cerebrospinal fluid. Am J Clin Pathol 1987 88:570-7.

74. Fujita J, Ueda Y, Bandoh S, Namihira H, Ishii T, Takahara J. A case of leptomeningeal metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma diagnosed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for carcinoembryonic antigen. Lung Cancer 1998; 22:153-6.

75. Swinkels DW, de Kok JB, Hanselaar A, Lamers K, Boerman RH. Early detection of leptomeningeal metastasis by PCR examination of tumor-derived K-ras DNA in cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Chem 2000; 46:132-3.

76. van Oostenbrugge RJ, Hopman AH, Arends JW, Ramaekers FC, Twijnstra A. Treatment of leptomeningeal metastases evaluated by interphase cytogenetics. J Clin Oncol 2000: 18; 2053-8.

77. Freilich RJ, Krol G, DeAngelis LM. Neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid cytology in the diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastasis. Ann Neurol 1995; 38:51-7.

78. Collie DA, Brush JP, Lammie GA, et al. Imaging features of leptomeningeal metastases. Clin Radiol 1999;54:765-71.

79. Straathof CS, de Bruin HG, Dippel DW, Vecht CJ. The diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and cerebrospinal fluid cytology in leptomeningeal metastasis. J Neurol. 1999;246:810-4.

80. River Y, Schwartz A, Gomori JM, Soffer D, Siegal T. Clinical significance of diffuse dural enhancement detected by magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosurg 1996; 85:777-83.

81. Abrey LE, Rosenblum MK, DeAngelis LM. Sarcoidosis of the cauda equina mimicking leptomeningeal malignancy. J Neurooncol 1998; 39:261-5

82. Gorson KC, Ropper AH, Muriello MA, Blair R. Prospective evaluation of MRI lumbosacral nerve root enhancement in acute Guillain-Barré syndrome. Neurology 1996; 47:813-7.

83. Singh SK, Agris JM, Leeds NE, Ginsberg LE. Intracranial leptomeningeal metastases: comparison of depiction at FLAIR and contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Radiology 2000; 217:50-3.

84. Mathews VP, Caldemeyer KS, Lowe MJ, Greenspan SL, Weber DM, Ulmer JL. Brain: gadolinium-enhanced fast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery MR imaging. Radiology 1999; 211:257-63.

85. Singh SK, Leeds, NE, Ginsberg LE. MR imaging of leptomeningeal metastases: Comparison of three sequences. Am J Neuroradiol 2002; 23: 817-821.

86. Glantz MJ, Hall WA, Cole BF, et al. Diagnosis, management, and survival of patients with leptomeningeal cancer based on cerebrospinal fluid-flow status. Cancer 1995; 75:291931.

87. Chamberlain MC, Kormanik PA. Prognostic significance of 11 lindium-DTPA CSF flow studies in leptomeningeal metastases. Neurology 1996; 46:1674-7.

88. Grossman SA, Trump DL, Chen DC, Thompson G, Camargo EE. Cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities in patients with neoplastic meningitis. An evaluation using 11 lindium-DTPA ventriculography. Am J Med 1982; 73:641-7.

89. Mason WP, Yeh SD, DeAngelis LM. 111 Indium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid cerebrospinal fluid flow studies predict distribution of intrathecally administered chemotherapy and outcome in patients with leptomeningeal metastases. Neurology 1998; 50:438-44.

90. Chamberlain MC. Comparative spine imaging in leptomeningeal metastases. J Neurooncol. 1995;23:233-8.

91. Ongerboer de Visser BW, Somers R, Nooyen WH, van Heerde P, Hart AA, McVie JG. Intraventricular methotrexate therapy of leptomeningeal metastasis from breast carcinoma. Neurology 1983; 33:1565-72.

92. Boogerd W, Hart AA, van der Sande JJ, Engelsman E. Meningeal carcinomatosis in breast cancer. Prognostic factors and influence of treatment. Cancer 1991; 67:1685-95.

93. Chamberlain MC, Kormanik P. Carcinoma meningitis secondary to non-small cell lung cancer: combined modality therapy. Arch Neurol 1998; 55:506-12.

94. Esteva FJ, Soh LT, Holmes FA, et al. Phase II trial and pharmacokinetic evaluation of cytosine arabinoside for leptomeningeal metastases from breast cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2000; 46:382-6.

95. Giannone L, Greco FA, Hainsworth JD. Combination intraventricular chemotherapy for meningeal neoplasia. J Clin Oncol 1986; 4:68-73.

96. Grossman SA, Finkelstein DM, Ruckdeschel JC, Trump DL, Moynihan T, Ettinger DS. Randomized prospective comparison of intraventricular methotrexate and thiotepa in patients with previously untreated neoplastic meningitis. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 1993; 11:561-9.

97. Hitchins RN, Bell DR, Woods RL, Levi JA. A prospective randomized trial of singleagent versus combination chemotherapy in meningeal carcinomatosis. J Clin Oncol 1987; 5:1655-62.

98. Pfeffer MR, Wygoda M, Siegal T. Leptomeningeal metastases-treatment results in 98 consecutive patients. Isr J Med Sci 1988; 24:611-8.

99. Stewart DJ, Maroun JA, Hugenholtz H, et al. Combined intra Ommaya methotrexate, cytosine arabinoside, hydrocortisone and thio-TEPA for meningeal involvement by malignancies. J Neurooncol 1987; 5:315-22.

100. Trump DL, Grossman SA, Thompson G, Murray K, Wharam M. Treatment of neoplastic meningitis with intraventricular thiotepa and methotrexate. Cancer Treat Rep 1982; 66:154951.

101. Shapiro WR, Posner JB, Ushio Y, Chemik NL, Young DF. Treatment of meningeal neoplasms. Cancer Treat Rep 1977; 61:733-43.

102. Yap HY, Yap BS, Rasmussen S, Levens ME, Hortobagyi GN, Blumenschein GR. Treatment for meningeal carcinomatosis in breast cancer. Cancer 1982; 50:219-22.

103. Shapiro WR, Young DF, Mehta BM. Methotrexate: distribution in cerebrospinal fluid after intravenous, ventricular and lumbar injections. N Engl J Med 1975; 93:161-6.

104. Larson SM, Schall GL, Di Chiro G. The influence of previous lumbar puncture and pneumoencephalography on the incidence of unsuccessful radioisotope cisternography. J Nucl Med 1971;2:555-7.

105. Bleyer WA, Coccia PF, Sather HN, et al. Reduction in central nervous system leukemia with a pharmacokinetically derived intrathecal methotrexate dosage regimen. J Clin Oncol 1983; 1:317-25.

106. Mehta BM, Glass JP, Shapiro WR. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid distribution of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate after intravenous calcium leucovorin and intra-Ommaya methotrexate administration in patients with meningeal carcinomatosis. Cancer Res 1983; 43:435-8.

107. Glantz MJ, Jaeckle KA, Chamberlain MC, et al. A randomized controlled trial comparing intrathecal sustained-release cytarabine (DepoCyt) to intrathecal methotrexate in patients with neoplastic meningitis from solid tumors. Clin Cancer Res 1999; 5:3394-402.

108. Siegal T, Lossos A, Pfeffer MR. Leptomeningeal metastases: analysis of 31 patients with sustained off-therapy response following combined-modality therapy. Neurology 1994; 44:1463-9.

109. Bokstein F, Lossos A, Siegal T. Leptomeningeal metastases from solid tumors: a comparison of two prospective series treated with and without intra-cerebrospinal fluid chemotherapy. Cancer 1998; 82:1756-63.

110. Glantz MJ, Cole BF, Recht L, et al. High-dose intravenous methotrexate for patients with nonleukemic leptomeningeal cancer: is intrathecal chemotherapy necessary? J Clin Oncol 1998; 16:1561-7.

111. Baculi RH, Suki S, Nisbett J, Leeds N, Groves M. Meningeal carcinomatosis from breast carcinoma responsive to trastuzumab. J Clin Oncol 2001; 19:3297-8.

112. Boogerd W, Dorresteijn LD, van Der Sande JJ, de Gast GC, Brüning PF. Response of leptomeningeal metastases from breast cancer to hormonal therapy. Neurology 2000; 55:1179.

113.Laufman LR, Forsthoefel KF. Use of intrathecal trastuzumab in a patient with carcinomatous meningitis. Clin Breast Cancer 2001; 2: 235.

114. Giglio P, Tremont-Lukats IW, Groves MD. Response of neoplastic meningitis from solid tumors to oral capecitabine. J Neuro-Oncol 2003; 65:167-72

115. Roger LR, Remer SE, Tejwani S. Durable response of breast cancer leptomeningeal metastases to capecitabine monotherapy. Neuro-Oncol 2004; 6: 63-4.

116. Tippin DB, Reeves W, Vogelzang NJ. Diagnosis and treatment of leptomeningeal metastases in a patient with renal carcinoma responding to 5-flourouracil and gemcitabine. J Urol 1999; 162:"155-6.

117. Hermann B, Hultenschmidt B, Sautter-Bihl ML. Radiotherapy of the neuro-axis for palliative treatment of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. Strahlenther Onkol 2001; 177: 195-9.

118. Blaney SM, Poplack DG. New cytotoxic drugs for intrathecal administration. J Neurooncol 1998;38:219-23.

119. Blaney SM, Heidman R, Berg S, et al. Phase I clinical trail of intrathecal topotecan in patients with neoplastic meningitis. J Clin Oncol 2003; 21: 143-7.

120. Chamberlain MC. A phase II trial of intra-cerebrospinal fluid alpha interferon in the treatment of neoplastic meningitis. Cancer 2002; 94: 2675-80.

121. Friedman HS. Temozolomide in early stages of newly diagnosed malignant glioma and neoplastic meningitis. Semin Oncol 2000; 27(3 Suppl 6): 35-40.

122. Nakagawa H, Yamada M, Fukushima M, Ikenaka K. Intrathecal 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FdUrd) for the treatment of solid tumor neoplastic meningitis: an in vivo study. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1999; 43:247-56.

123. Sampson JH, Archer GE, Villavicencio AT, et al. Treatment of neoplastic meningitis with intrathecal temozolomide. Clin Cancer Res 1999; 5:1183-8.

124. Quinn JA, Glantz M, Petros W, et al. Phase I trial of spartaject busulfan for patients with neoplastic meningitis. Proceedings ASCO 2002, Abstract 318.

125. Bigner DD, Brown M, Coleman RE, et al. Phase I studies of treatment of malignant gliomas and neoplastic meningitis with 1311-radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies anti-tenascin

81C6 and anti-chondroitin proteoglycan sulfate Mel-14 F (ab1) 2—a preliminary report. J Neurooncol 1995; 24: 109-22.

126. Coakham HB, Kemshead JT. Treatment of neoplastic meningitis by targeted radiation using (131 )I-radiolabel 1 ed monoclonal antibodies. Results of responses and long term follow-up in 40 patients. J Neurooncol 1998; 38:225-32.

127. Herrlinger U, Weller M, Schabet M. New aspects of immunotherapy of leptomeningeal metastasis. J Neurooncol 1998; 38:233-9.

128. Moseley RP, Davies AG, Richardson RB, et al. Intrathecal administration of 1131 radiolabeled monoclonal antibody as a treatment from neoplastic meningitis. Br J Cancer 1990; 62: 673-42.

129. Vrionis FD. Gene therapy of neoplastic meningosis. J Neurooncol 1998; 38:241-4.

130. Chamberlain MC, Kormanik PA, Barba D. Complications associated with intraventricular chemotherapy in patients with leptomeningeal metastases. J Neurosurg 1997; 87:694-9.

131. Obbens EA, Leavens ME, Beal JW, Lee YY. Ommaya reservoirs in 387 cancer patients: a 15-year experience. Neurology 1985; 35:1274-8.

132. Sandberg DI, Bilsky MH, Souweidane MM, Bzdil J, Gutin PH. Ommaya reservoirs for the treatment of leptomeningeal metastases. Neurosurgery 2000; 47:49-54.

133. Trump DL, Grossman SA, Thompson G, Murray K. CSF infections complicating the management of neoplastic meningitis. Clinical features and results of therapy. Arch Intern Med 1982; 142:583-6.

134. Sutherland GE, Palitang EG, Marr JJ, Luedke SL. Sterilization of Ommaya reservoir by instillation of vancomycin. Am J Med 1981; 71:1068-70.

135. ten Hoeve RF, Twijnstra A. A lethal neurotoxic reaction after intraventricular methotrexate administration. Cancer 1988; 62:2111-3.

136. Thiessen B, DeAngelis LM. Hydrocephalus in radiation leukoencephalopathy: results of ventriculoperitoneal shunting. Arch Neurol 1998; 55:705-10.

137. Moots PL, Harrison MB, Vandenberg SR. Prolonged survival in carcinomatous meningitis associated with breast cancer. South Med J 1995; 88:357-62.

138. Chamberlain MC, Kormanik PA. Prognostic significance of coexistent bulky metastatic central nervous system disease in patients with leptomeningeal metastases. Arch Neurol 1997; 54:1364-8.

139. Chamberlain MC, Kormanik PR. Carcinomatous meningitis secondary to breast cancer: predictors of response to combined modality therapy. J Neurooncol 1997; 35:55-64.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment