Adaptive Immunity to L pneumophila Infection

Cannabinoid And Adaptive Immunity

The adaptive immune response to bacterial infection follows initial exposure to microbes, not necessarily active infection, and is transferable to naive recipients by lymphocytes. The humoral antibody response to bacterial infection is a typical adaptive immune response when an individual is exposed to bacterial antigens and a heightened specific antibody response then occurs after secondary stimulation by antigens from the same microbe or active infection. The role of antibodies in resistance...

Antibacterial and Antiviral Effects of Epigallocatechin Gallate

The use of such substances to prevent or moderate infectious diseases is a cornerstone of traditional Chinese medicine and also alternative medicine in Western countries. In this regard, there has been increased interest in prophylactic treatment to prevent or ameliorate clinical infection or re-infection by opportunistic microbes which cause chronic disease, including gastritis due to H. pylori. Such substances are often derived from extracts of plants considered medicinal. In particular, many...

Plasmids of Legionella

Legionella Genome

Two of the three sequenced L. pneumophila strains carry plasmids that might play a role either in adaptation to the environment or in virulence as both encode putative virulence factors, mobile genetic elements and antibiotic resistance genes. In strain Paris a 132 kb plasmid and in strain Lens a 60 kb plasmid was identified, both of which seem to be single copy plasmids. These plasmids contain a 24 kb Figure 1.5. Regions of plasticity identified in the L. pneumophila genomes and their...

The Life Cycle of L pneumophila as Currently Understood

Legionella Pneumophila Life Cycle

Life cycles tell us a great deal about the natural history of a living organism. They are a synthesis of years of evolution, adaptation, specialization, and survival in nature. From an infectious disease standpoint, life cycles may provide clues to understand the mechanisms of pathogenesis of a particular parasite. The origin of pathogens and the evolution of virulence lie within the dominion of microbial ecology, and the life cycle of L. pneumophila surely is no exception. Amoebae are the...

Clinical Features of Legionnaires Disease

A listing of symptoms and signs in patients with LD does not accurately convey the clinical features of the disease. While, as will be subsequently described, there are no features of LD that allow one to make the diagnosis clinically, there is little doubt from clinical observations that in young adults with no comorbidity who develop rapidly progressive pneumonia LD has to be near the top of the differential diagnosis. In the Philadelphia outbreak Tsai et al 1979 fever was present in 97...

Preface and Introduction

The summer of 2006 marked the 30th anniversary of the outbreak of Legionnaires' disease, an acute pneumonia that occurred among veterans who had gathered in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1976 to celebrate the bicentennial of the founding of the United States. Ironically, the nation and world were braced for an epidemic of swine influenza, which never materialized and no one expected the emergence of a new bacterial pathogen, since most in the medical field sincerely believed that all the...