Learning Disabilities Ebooks Catalog
This is a comprehensive guide covering the basics of dyslexia to a wide range of diagnostic procedures and tips to help you manage with your symptoms. These tips and tricks have been used on people with dyslexia of every varying degree and with great success. People just like yourself that suffer with adult dyslexia now feel more comfortable and relaxed in social and work situations.
The main feature is a specific and significant impairment in the development of reading skills that is not solely accounted for by mental age, visual acuity problems, or inadequate schooling. Reading comprehension skill, reading word recognition, oral reading skill, and performance of tasks requiring reading may all be affected. Spelling difficulties are frequently associated with specific reading disorder and often remain into adolescence even after some progress in reading has been made. Specific developmental disorders of reading are commonly preceded by a history of disorders in speech or language development. Associated emotional and behavioural disturbances are common during the school age period. Backward reading Developmental dyslexia Specific reading retardation Excludes alexia NOS ( R48.0 ) dyslexia NOS ( R48.0 ) reading difficulties secondary to emotional disorders ( F93.- ) F81.1 Specific spelling disorder The main feature is a specific and significant impairment in the...
KS in a prepubertal boy are verbal learning disabilities and taurodontism, the unusual enlargement of the pulp of the tooth seen roughly half of men and boys with KS (46). After puberty, individuals with KS will often exhibit tall stature (usually greater than 184 cm) with proportionally long legs and will frequently manifest an arm span that is greater than their height (51). In adults, the diagnosis of KS should be considered in men with gynecomastia, primary hypogonadism, infertility, or osteoporosis. Because serum testosterone levels may be normal, serum gonadotropins should also be measured. Peripheral blood karyotyping can be used to confirm the diagnosis, although this test can be negative in mosaic individuals, and tissue karyotype may be necessary (9).
The parasomnias and neurological disorders of sleep, such as narcolepsy, may be confused with epilepsy due to their paroxysmal nature. The difficulty in differentiating epileptic and nonepileptic events is compounded by the fact that paroxysmal nonepileptic sleep events are more common in children with epilepsy or learning disabilities than in the general childhood population (6). Sleep disorders remain a largely neglected and poorly understood area in pediatrics. However, with careful attention to the timing and semeiology of events and the use of video-EEG and nocturnal polysomnography, these conditions can be classified and distinguished from epileptic seizures (see also Chapter 16).
Rhythmic movement disorders such as nocturnal head banging (jactatio capitis nocturna), body rocking, and head rolling typically occur in infants and toddlers as they are trying to fall asleep. They can be present in deep sleep and in wakefulness. They are more common in children with learning disabilities. They typically remit by 5 years of age, but may persist into adult life. Management relies on good sleep hygiene and padding the headboard so the rest of the house is not wakened. Rhythmic movement disorders that are not clearly associated with the sleep-wake transition state respond less well to behavioral management techniques and (rarely) medications such as benzodiazepines may be helpful.
Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes constitute the MELAS acronym. The disease shows maternal inheritance with considerable intrafamilial variation in expression of the disease. The age at onset varies between 3 months and 40 years, but in most cases first signs and symptoms occur before adulthood. Early development is normal in the majority of patients. The first manifestations of disease usually belong to the group of general features of encephalomyopathies. Growth disturbance and epileptic seizures are the most frequent first symptoms. The disease is progressive with increasing symptomatology. Learning disabilities, cognitive regression, exercise intolerance, and limb weakness are frequent manifestations of the disease. The myopathic features are rarely very prominent in MELAS. Stroke-like episodes are rarely early signs of the disease but have occurred before the age of 40 years in almost all patients. The stroke-like events give rise...
S., & Littler, J. E. (1993). Development of memory span for spoken words The role of rehearsal and item identification processes. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 11, 159-169. Hitch, G. J., Halliday, M. S., Schaafstal, A., & Schraagen, J. M. (1988). Visual working memory in young children. Memory and Cognition, 16, 120-132. Hitch, G. J., & McAuley, E. (1991). Working memory in children with specific arithmetical learning difficulties. British Journal of Psychology, 82, 375-386. Hitch, G. J., & Towse, J. N. (1995). Working memory What develops In F. E. Weinert & W. Schneider (Eds.), Memory performance and competencies Issues in growth and development (pp. 3-21). Mahwah, N.J. Erlbaum. Hitch, G. J., Towse, J. N., & Hutton, U. (2001). What limits children's working memory span Theoretical accounts and applications for scholastic development. Journal of Experimental Psychology General, 130, 184-198.
More interesting, the language-impaired children were significantly poorer at nonword repetition than a group of younger children matched on language ability, which suggests that a deficit in the phonological loop was responsible for their language-learning difficulties. Thus, taken together, evidence from both normal and abnormal development indicates a close relationship between the phonological loop and native-vocabulary acquisition.
Despite advances made in vaccination and treatment strategies, bacterial meningitis remains associated with a high mortality rate and a high incidence of neurological sequelae, particularly in very young and elderly patients. Approximately 1.2 million cases of bacterial meningitis occur annually worldwide, with 135,000 deaths (86). Long-term effects resulting from meningitis include hearing loss, hydrocephalus, and sequelae associated with parenchymal damage, including memory loss, cerebral palsy, learning disabilities, and seizures (87). The majority of community-acquired meningitis cases are caused by organisms that colonize the mucosal membranes of the nasopharynx, including Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most common amino acid disorder. In PKl' there is a defect in the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, which converts phenylalanine to tyrosine. The recommended diet is restricted in phenylalanine (substrate) and supplemented with tyrosine (product). Early treatment of PKU prevents severe mental retardation. This diet should be continued for life as learning difficulties and behavioral problems have been reported in children who have discontinued the diet or have poor dietary control.'4 Age-appropriate tasks that help children develop the knowledge and skills necessary to manage their diet successfully as an adult are outlined in Table 31-3.
We are aware of the fact that in a number of myelin disorders MRI is not a part of the usual diagnostic work up because a definite diagnosis is reached by other means, such as biochemical investigations of blood and urine, enzyme assessment or detection of specific antibodies. However, in many disorders MRI may facilitate a rapid diagnosis and early instigation of treatment, thus preventing structural cerebral damage. In other cases the role of MRI is to visualize the extent of brain damage and give an indication of the prognosis. In disorders which present in a nonspecific way, for instance with behavioral problems or learning difficulties, MRI can be one of the first-line investigations. It is important to be acquainted with the various MRI patterns of the myelin disorders, as an early diagnosis may be of major importance in young families with a view to the provision of adequate genetic counseling.
Patients with comorbid schizophrenia and low IQ may present complex management problems. They require longer hospitalizations than those with schizophrenia alone and are more likely to have a history of epilepsy, negative symptoms, and impairment of episodic memory. Negative symptoms and memory problems are difficult to treat and may contribute to poor adherence to treatment (Doody et al. 1998). At discharge these patients often require a high level of community support due to poorer social support from their families, possibly because of familial learning disability or schizophrenia.
Eight-year-old Sarah was brought to the Behavioral Paediatrics Program Clinic for 'behavior problems'. These included picking on her 7-year-old sister and 5-year-old brother, disruptive behaviors at after-school day care, and defiance and anger outbursts almost daily in interactions with parents. She met criteria for a diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and had no ADHD or learning difficulties. Therapy for Sarah and her family included primarily behavioral management including family meetings and negotiation. For her angry outbursts, Sarah was taught self-hypnosis which included
Model (see also Box 5 and reference 18). Thus, while studies in this area are still at a relatively early stage, the intriguing hypothesis is emerging that FMRP plays a key role in local protein synthesis in dendrites, and, by disrupting this process, leads to the learning derangements of fragile X. As the potential role of FMRP in dendritic protein synthesis was discussed in detail in Chapter 7, I won't reiterate the particulars here. Suffice it to say that once again we see an example of how detailed studies of the molecular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity have converged with studies of a human learning disorder.
Psychological measurement plays an important role in modern society. Teachers have schoolchildren tested for dyslexia or hyperactivity, parents have their children's interests and capacities assessed by commercial research bureaus, countries test entire populations of pupils to decide who goes to which school or university, and corporate firms hire other corporate firms to test the right person for the job. The diversity of psychological characteristics measured in such situations is impressive. There exist tests for measuring an enormous range of capacities, abilities, attitudes, and personality factors these tests are said to measure concepts as diverse as intelligence, extraversion, quality of life, client satisfaction, neuroticism, schizophrenia, and amnesia. The ever increasing popularity of books of the test-your-emotional-intelligence variety has added to the acceptance of psychological testing as an integral element of society. When we shift our attention from the larger arena...