The literature database MEDLINE was searched for all clinical studies for the years 1993-2004. The MeSh-terms "rectal prolapse," "rectopexy," "laparoscopy*," and "laparoscopic surgery*" were used for the search and more than 100 publications written in English were found. Laparoscopic, laparoscopic-assisted, and hand-assisted procedures were included. Clinical studies including patients with other diseases, studies reported in multiple publications, small case series with less than 18 patients, or data given only as abstracts were excluded from further analysis.
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