Native and nonnative shrubs have many uses, both in private gardens and as elements in commercial and civic landscaping. Shrubby willows and alders function as soil stabilizers, preventing erosion naturally along waterways. Other shrubs are natural windbreaks that reduce wind flow over open soils. Farmers value shrubby windbreaks that preserve barren farm soils during fall and winter months, when the land is barren and topsoil is especially liable to be blown away during winter storms. For much the same reason, homeowners may plant certain types of shrubs at strategic locations along the boundaries of the yard to reduce air flow. Garden plants shrubs 479
Hoshizaki, Barbara Joe, and Robbin C. Moran. Fern Grower's Manual. Rev. ed. Portland, Oreg. Timber Press, 2001. Extensive information for amateur and professional gardeners regarding landscaping with ferns. Includes color illustrations, map, and bibliographical references. Mickel, John. Ferns for American Gardens The Definitive Guide to Selecting and Growing More than Five Hundred Kinds of Hardy Ferns. New York Macmillan, 1994. Provides information about both popular and obscure ferns propagated in the United States, covering cultivation tips, growing zones, size, and how to use ferns for landscaping. Includes color photographs, illustrations, and source list.
Although found all over the world, roses grow best in mild climates, such as southern France and the U.S. Pacific coast. Roses' excellent growth in many different kinds of soil and climate is a result of the availability of myriad cultivars. A rose garden should be protected from cold wind and be exposed to sunlight for several hours a day. Deep, rich loam is best for roses, but most cultivars grow in sandy and gravelly soil. The soil must be well drained. Roses are planted in spring, about 2 feet (0.6 meter) apart. In the United States, about sixty-five million commercial rose plants are cultivated yearly. About 35 percent are grown for cut flowers, and the rest are used in gardens or landscaping. For the best growth, rose plants require severe pruning, which is adapted to the intended use of the flowers. Most varieties are grown by budding on understocks. Roses are susceptible to diseases such as rust and black-spot disease, so pests should be watched for and discouraged.
Cardinals dwell in mostly edge habitats, especially the interface of woodland and meadow, and edges of swamps of shrubby wetlands, especially areas that offer shrubby evergreens for nesting. They have adapted well to human-modified landscapes and commonly nest in landscaped yards in which the mix of ornamentals and grass essentially mimics its natural habitats.
Humans use shade trees and shrubs in landscaping for cooling as well as for aesthetic effects. The leaves of shade plants planted next to a dwelling can make a significant difference in energy costs to the homeowner. Humans also use for food the leaves of cabbage, parsley, lettuce, spinach, chard, and the petioles of celery and rhubarb, to mention a few. Many spices and flavorings are derived from leaves, including thyme, marjoram, oregano, tarragon, peppermint, spearmint, wintergreen, basil, dill, sage, cilantro, and savory.
A useful starting point for restoration ecology is to conceptualize a spectrum of activity. In response to loss of biodiversity worldwide, a first option for a particular physical area may be to do 'nothing', or alternatively, 'something'. On the positive side, where we do 'nothing', it may be because biodiversity is so intact that urgent attention will make little difference. This is the case with certain wildlife reserves that are principally set-aside areas of land where naturalness is largely intact, and at most, there is minimal management to address a particular conservation goal. On the other hand, we may do 'nothing' because the biodiversity is so degraded, as in a city harbour. In this second case, to do something truly meaningful in terms of naturalness or biodiversity recovery would be a monumental task. This does not mean, however, that some sort of ecological landscaping cannot be done, we are simply conceptualizing extremes. Between these two extremes of 'doing nothing'...
People who make their homes in woodland settings in or near forests face the danger of forest fire, and government agencies provide information to help people safeguard themselves and their property. Homes near forests should be designed and landscaped with fire safety in mind, using fire- resistant or noncombustible materials on the roof and exterior. Landscaping should include a clear safety zone around the house. Hardwood trees, less flammable than conifers, and other fire-resistant vegetation should be planted.
Cricket Metrioptera bicolor, for example, normally prefers low grassland in Sweden, but during extremely dry conditions moves to tall grassland (Kindvall, 1995). This returns us again to the importance of conserving as much heterogeneity in and between patches and landscapes as possible. How much exactly is difficult to answer, but it does reflect Leopold's (1949) 'Precautionary Principle', of keeping all the parts. For our purposes here, this maintenance of as much heterogeneity as possible, we may call the Second Premise of ecological landscaping for insect diversity conservation. Let us now consider the Third Premise. habitats, having a positive effect on the surrounding areas. And this applies to plants as well as insects (Smart et al., 2002). However, a rider here is that small fragments are subject to edge impacts and attrition, and that tropical forest fragments of 5000 ha are in serious and immediate danger of suffering receding edges (Gascon et al., 2000). This is partly...
It was found that inside an O'Neill station, clouds would form naturally at a height of 1 km above the inner surface. Soil provided from either the Moon or near-Earth asteroids would be the basis for landscaping and agriculture, generating environments similar to those on Earth. With a five times larger usable area, compared to a torus-type colony, the O'Neill station could have a population of from 200 000 to 20 million people. Moreover, such colonies would be surrounded by small service stations (Fig. 9.10), in which every environmental condition for optimal agricultural production could be realized. Because of the limited volume of such agricultural stations, control of the environment, pests, and plant diseases could be easily achieved.
Homeowners Guide To Landscaping
How would you like to save a ton of money and increase the value of your home by as much as thirty percent! If your homes landscape is designed properly it will be a source of enjoyment for your entire family, it will enhance your community and add to the resale value of your property. Landscape design involves much more than placing trees, shrubs and other plants on the property. It is an art which deals with conscious arrangement or organization of outdoor space for human satisfaction and enjoyment.