Instrumentation in Total Knee Arthroplasty



In the early 1970s the total condylar knee arthroplasty was designed at the Hospital for Special Surgery and emphasized the concepts of ligament balance and knee alignment.1 After the introduction of polymethylmethacrylate, there was a rapid increase in design work because the major obstacle of fixation was relieved. Although the knee implant designs continued to undergo refinement, instrumentation lagged significantly behind the design technology. This dichotomy occurred because the emphasis was given to the development of better anatomic and biomechanical prostheses that could take advantage of the new fixation and improve upon the early loosening and increase the range of motion. The technique for the implantation of the knee was not a central issue. Thus, instruments were designed after the prostheses had been developed and oftentimes were not even available for the initial surgical procedures.

In the 1980s the knee designs became more sophisticated and the concept of a cementless prosthesis was introduced.2 The cementless components required more accurate bone cuts in order to increase the surface area of contact between the prosthesis and the bone. This placed a much greater demand upon the instrumentation and required a parallel technology to complete the prosthesis and the instruments as one unified system. It became evident that the results of the new implants were dependent both upon the design rationale of the prosthesis and the surgical technique. It was no longer acceptable to rely upon the "surgeon's eye" to establish proper positioning of the implant. Implant design and instrument design became equally important.


Tibiofemoral Alignment

The overall alignment of the knee must be in 5 to 10 degrees of anatomic valgus. The alignment is determined by the position of both the femoral and tibial components in the coronal plane of the joint. There are two basic schools of thought concerning the position of the knee joint.3,4 The most popular school references the mechanical axis of the lower leg. The tibial cut is made perpendicular to the tibial shaft and the femoral cut is made parallel to the mechanical axis of the femur (i.e., the line drawn from the femoral head through the middle of the tibia and through the middle of the ankle). The anatomic alignment references the mechanical axis of the lower leg but allows for the fact that the proximal tibial plateau is actually in a few degrees of varus. In this system the tibial cut is set anatomically (i.e., in 2 to 3 degrees of varus) and the femoral cut is made parallel to the mechanical axis with the addition of the 2 or 3 degrees. Hungerford and Krackow popularized this concept hoping to improve knee arthroplasty with greater anatomic precision (Fig. 2.1).

The Femoral Component

The preceding discussion has only considered the angular relationship of the femur and the tibia in the coronal plane. The instruments must align each component in the sagittal, coronal, and horizontal planes. The femoral component should include a valgus angle of 4 to 6 degrees, should be centered on the end of the femoral shaft with respect to the anteroposterior plane, should not be significantly flexed or extended, and should include external rotation of 3 to 4 degrees.

The femoral valgus angle can be referenced with respect to the femoral shaft. The anterior to posterior position and the external rotation can be verified with respect to the posterior condylar axis, the anterior cortex of the shaft of the femur, the intramedullary canal, the epicondyles, and the flexion gap. Each of the references has an individual variability. The posterior femoral condyles are easily defined. However, as the varus or valgus deformity of the knee increases the posterior aspect of the medial condyle (in varus) and the lateral condyle (in valgus) can become deficient. With this atrophy, the anterior to posterior thickness will be underestimated and the femoral cuts will be internally rotated in the valgus deformity and externally rotated in the varus deformity if the posterior condylar axis is the primary reference (Fig. 2.2). The anterior cortex of the femur is readily available for referencing.5 Because the lateral femoral condyle rises higher than the medial condyle in the femoral sulcus area, the surgeon must choose between the high lateral referencing or the low medial referencing. If the anterior cut is elevated, the forces in the patellofemoral joint will be increased because of the increased distance of the patella from the center of

Femoral Sulcus Anatomy
Figure 2.1. The figure on the left illustrates the mechanical axis of the knee. The figure on the right shows the femoral anatomic axis with the tibial reference line drawn to allow for the anatomic varus of the tibia of 3 degrees.
Mechanical Axis KneeAnatomic Varus Angle

Figure 2.2. (A) The relationship of the posterior condylar axis and the epi-condylar axis. (B) The varus knee presents with an atrophic medial femoral condyle, especially posteriorly. This can result in increased external rotation of the femoral component if the posterior condylar axis is used as the only reference point.

Figure 2.2. (A) The relationship of the posterior condylar axis and the epi-condylar axis. (B) The varus knee presents with an atrophic medial femoral condyle, especially posteriorly. This can result in increased external rotation of the femoral component if the posterior condylar axis is used as the only reference point.

Lateral Femoral Condyle Hypoplasia Tkr
Figure 2.2. Continued. (C) The valgus knee presents with an atrophic lateral femoral condyle, especially posteriorly. This can result in increased internal rotation of the femoral component if the posterior condylar axis is used as the only reference point.

rotation of the knee. Anterior positioning of the femoral component will also increase the flexion space. If the cut is lowered on the anterior surface, there is the chance of femoral notching. A notch defect of 1 or 2 mm is probably not significant; however, deeper defects can be associated with supracondylar fracture. If all femoral cuts are referenced from the anterior cortex despite the size of the chosen component, the smaller component will increase the flexion gap, perhaps out of proportion to the extension gap, and may remove an undesirable amount of bone. The larger femoral component will decrease the flexion gap without a proportionate effect on the extension space (Fig. 2.3).

The intramedullary canal of the femur is a stable referencing point, especially in the revision case in which there can be significant bone deficits and loss of palpable bone landmarks. The canal helps with the anteroposterior position and with the valgus distal

Extension Gap Total Knee Arthroplasty
Figure 2.3. The flexion gap is affected by the size of the femoral component without significant effects on the extension space.

cut. The intramedullary referencing rod is most accurate if the length is increased to engage the isthmus of the femoral shaft. The accuracy can also be increased if the width of the intramedullary rod is increased to engage both the medial and lateral cortex of the femur. The intramedullary canal itself does not provide good rotational referencing.

The epicondyles are especially helpful with respect to rotational positioning; however, it is sometimes difficult to identify the exact center point, most especially of the medial epicondyle.6,7 Rubash has reported some excellent anatomic studies comparing the epi-condylar axis with the posterior condylar axis and he has shown that they do indeed correlate with each other.8 The transepicondy-lar axis of the distal femur does represent a reproducible landmark. The epicondyles are identified and the component is rotated until it is parallel to the axis. This reference is based solely upon the femoral anatomy, much the same as the posterior condyles. The surgeon should not confuse the rotational positioning of the femoral component with the flexion-extension gap in reference to the tibial component. With this technique the balancing is considered as a completely separate issue. The flexion gap technique for femoral rotation is based upon the reference to the tibial cut with the collateral ligaments balanced in flexion. The knee is distracted in flexion after the tibial cut has been completed. The collateral ligaments are balanced equally and the posterior femoral cut is made parallel to the proximal tibial cut surface to create a rectangular space (the "gap" technique as described by Insall) (Fig. 2.4).9 This technique assures ligament balance in flexion but if either collateral is abnormally tight or lax, the femoral rotation can be incorrect and interfere with patellar tracking.

The rotational alignment of the femoral component effects both the tracking of the patella and the balance of the collateral ligaments in flexion. The sulcus of the femoral component must articulate with the patella and maintain normal contact from extension to full flexion. Internal rotation of the femoral component will allow the patella to track laterally with respect to the femoral sulcus. Internal rotation will also tighten the medial flexion space

Tkr Distal Femur Cut
Figure 2.4. With the collateral ligaments balanced in flexion, the posterior femoral cut can be made parallel to the proximal tibia to create a rectangular space in flexion which must then be matched in extension.

and open up the lateral flexion space gap. External rotation of the femoral component favors the tracking of the patella; however, if the external rotation is excessive, the patella can track medially and the flexion gap can become too large on the medial side and too small on the lateral.

The Tibial Component

The tibial component must also be considered as a separate entity similar to the femoral component. Most tibial cuts are perpendicular to the tibial shaft in the coronal plane unless the knee system incorporates an anatomic 3 or 4 degrees of varus. In the sagittal plane the tibial cut is usually perpendicular or includes a slight posterior angulation to help with the flexion range of motion improving the rollback of the femoral component on the tibial surface. Many knee systems include a slight posterior angulation in the polyethylene surface and cut the tibial plateau at a 90-degree angle. If the slope is built into the polyethylene, there must be some thinning of the polyethylene from the anterior to the posterior aspect of the surface. With the thinner inserts, it is possible to approach the critical thickness of 6 mm or less. Thus, some designs incorporate the slope in the tibial cut and then implant a polyethylene that is of uniform thickness from anterior to posterior and avoid the issue of changing polyethylene thickness.

The tibia must also be rotated in the horizontal plane with respect to the tibial tubercle.6,7 The tibial rotation is slightly less complicated than the femoral (Fig. 2.4). The tibial tubercle is the major landmark for referencing. Most component systems center upon the tubercle unless there is a marked external or, less commonly, internal rotation of the tibial tuberosity. With abnormal tubercle anatomy, the tibial rotation is usually determined with respect to the femoral component in the flexed position and then referenced in extension to check the entire range of motion. It can become difficult to choose the proper position when the existing tubercle is markedly rotated. If the tibial tray is internally rotated, the patella will track with the patellar ligament and tend to shift laterally. If the tray is externally rotated, the patella will track more centrally but the tibiofemoral contact will not be anatomic and the rotational torque can lead to loosening or wear.

The Patellar Component

As the technology for knee arthroplasty improves, the last area of difficulty is the patellofemoral articulation. The patella must track centrally throughout the range of motion despite the individual position of the femoral and tibial components. Soft tissue procedures and/or tubercle osteotomies are sometimes required to center the patella on the femoral sulcus.10,11 The thickness of the patella has become a point of concern and instruments can be helpful with this problem. Although the literature is scant at the present time, there is a tendency to favor decreasing the overall thickness of the resurfaced patella versus the original presenting thickness. Thinning the patella brings the component closer to the center of rotation of the knee and decreases the forces on the surface, hopefully decreasing wear and fracture. Most surgeons favor retaining a minimum of 10 mm of the original patellar bed. The patellar cut should be parallel to the anterior cortical surface and the thickness should be equal to or less than the original thickness. The patella can also be placed eccentrically on the cut bed. The author favors a central position; however, some groups recommend medial placement of the patella to favor better tracking on the femoral surface.

If the patellar component is facetted, the alignment becomes even more important. The patella may track centrally; yet, there may still be an element of torque if the facets are rotated out of position versus the femoral condyles. The problem of facet alignment can be somewhat corrected if the patella is a mobile-bearing surface that can rotate throughout the range of motion. The mobile-bearing designs require a metal baseplate and often will increase the overall thickness of the patella leading to increased forces and possible increased wear.


Cutting Instruments

Early knee arthroplasty was performed with simple hand implements and without sophisticated cutting guides. With the introduction of power tools, the cuts became more reproducible and the surgeons demanded better guides. Cutting blocks were introduced and the sawblade rested upon the block for support and direction (Fig. 2.5). Cutting slots were then introduced to grasp the blade better and protect it from roaming across the guide block. The slots took the sawblade to the best accuracy that it could afford. Then, the concept of frames was introduced. The frame can be applied to the bone and the cutting blade is locked into a slot for the various cuts. The advantage of the frame is the single application with several cuts completed at the same step (Fig. 2.6). Multiple blocks and slots lead to multiple opportunities for the introduction of inaccuracies. The frame eliminates several steps and, thus, elimi-

Ranawat Cutting Block
Figure 2.5. The femoral cutting block is pinned on the distal surface with proper rotation.

nates more of the chances for inaccurate cuts. The next logical step was to introduce rotary blades to be used with the frames. The rotary blade eliminates the wobble of the long oscillating blade, decreases the temperature of the cut bone surface, and controls the depth of the cut. At the present time the sawblade with the cutting

Knee Arthroplasty
Figure 2.6. An external frame applied to the distal femur allows all of the subsequent cuts to be completed with a single reference point.

slots still represents the gold standard in knee arthroplasty. The author favors the use of the frames with rotary blades and looks to the future for greater improvement of these devices.

Although lasers have gained a great deal in other specialties, open knee procedures do not favor the user of the laser. The elec-trocautery remains the primary device for hemostasis and the power tools cut the bone quite accurately and acceptably.

There have been some attempts to apply robotic arms to the knee surgery and this may become more popular in the future when the instruments become more accurate and lock the cutting devices into place about the bone. It is also difficult for the arm to use the standard bone landmarks that are presently used. When the landmarks become more accurate and reproducible, it may be more appropriate to visit this technology again.

Instrument Design

The designer's choice of anatomic references concerning alignment and balance of the knee arthroplasty components significantly affects the type of instrument that is subsequently designed. The discussion earlier outlines the multitude of parameters that are available for referencing each component.

During the arthroplasty, the surgeon must address the femur, the tibia, and the patella as separate entities and then as an integrated unit. Various systems begin on the femoral or the tibial side. With either approach, the considerations are the same but are addressed at different points during the surgical procedure. This chapter will begin with the tibial preparation and proceed to the femur and then to the patella.

Tibial Preparation

The instruments for the tibial preparation are based upon intramedullary or extramedullary referencing. Because the anterior prominence of the tibial shaft and the malleoli of the ankle joint are usually readily palpable, extramedullary rods for the tibia are very reliable. The tibial tubercle and the fibular head are usually available for referencing except in the worst revision cases. The initial tibial cut is usually perpendicular to the shaft with a slight posterior angulation according to the system that is being used. The tibial jigs attach to the anterior tibia in line with the tubercle and include either a capture slot to enclose the oscillating sawblade or a cutting block upon which the sawblade rests. Capture slots control the oscillating sawblade but tend to block the full view of the underlying bone. Cutting blocks allow more complete visual ization of the bone surface but they also allow more sawblade deviation. The tibial cutting slots can accommodate angled cuts to prepare the plateau surface to accept a wedge attached to the tibial tray. Rotary blade power cutters are presently being considered to fashion the tibia and femur. These devices create significant bone debris and require capture slots that often obscure the bone surface from the operating surgeon.

Intramedullary tibial jigs are also available for this primary cut. The tibial shaft is often too narrow for the rod, or the shaft is curved, or the proximal tibial surface requires offset from the central canal, making intramedullary placement difficult or sometimes impossible. Simmons studied the accuracy of the intramedullary devices and reported neutral alignment in 83% of the varus knees and only 37% of the valgus knees.12 The major source of the difficulty was the tibial bowing, which was present in 66% of the valgus knees. He recommended preoperative long films or cross checking with external alignment in the genu valgus deformity (Table 2.1). The literature indicates that either the extramedullary or the intramedullary instruments are equally accurate for the tibial cut; however, the intramedullary technique may not be possible in the setting of the valgus knee.

Femoral Preparation

The femoral preparation is the more difficult portion of the knee arthroplasty. The femoral shaft is less visible and palpable than the tibia because of the bulk of the thigh musculature, the proximal arterial tourniquet, and the commonly associated thigh obesity. The femoral head is not a palpable landmark and the anterior superior iliac spine is often difficult to identify beneath the surgical drapes. The femoral shaft has the natural anterior bow and may also include a varus bow. Multiple studies have been performed to evaluate the accuracy of either the extramedullary or the

TABLE 2.1. The accuracy of the intramedullary and extramedullary tibial jigs varies in the reported literature















TABLE 2.2. The published results of intramedullary and extramedullary femoral jigs clearly favor the intramedullary devices












>2-3° (unacceptable)

intramedullary alignment rods (Table 2.2).13-22 At the present time the intramedullary rod systems appear to be more helpful and can be checked with extramedullary backup. In 1988, Tillett and Engh compared extramedullary and intramedullary alignment systems for the distal femoral cut and found no significant difference.13 The femoral head was located for the extramedullary system using a radio opaque marker with roentgenographic verification in the operating room before the procedure was undertaken. The authors admitted that the roentgenogram required greater time and that the intramedullary system was more expedient. The same authors subsequently published a comparative experience using similar techniques for both the extramedullary and intramedullary alignment guides.15 They reported 87.5% correct alignment with the intramedullary system and only 68.8% correct with the extramedullary. They explained the difference in their two papers by indicating that in the newer paper they used longer X-ray cassettes for greater measuring accuracy. second, they reported greater variation with larger discrepancies in the extramedullary group.

if the intramedullary canal of the femur is particularly large, it is possible to ream the canal eccentrically and insert the reference rod into the canal in an incorrect varus or valgus position. Bertin reviewed these possibilities and showed that a lengthened rod with an increased diameter helped to prevent some of the discrepancies (Fig. 2.7).23 Once the intramedullary rod is properly placed, the distal end of the femur can be resected with the appropriate valgus angulation to reestablish the biomechanical axis of the lower extremity. The exact choice of the angle can be made with preoperative full-length standing films or with intraoperatively placed markers that are roentgenographically positioned and checked. Despite the modifications of the intramedullary devices, extramedullary confirmation of the component position is still advised during the operative procedure. The author does not rely upon full-length standing roentgenograms for the valgus align-

Intramedullary Guide Tka

ment. In the varus knee, the intramedullary guide is positioned and 4 degrees of valgus is set in place. In the valgus knee we chose 2 to 3 degrees of valgus for the intramedullary guide. With these choices we have found that the femorotibial angle is 5 to 10 degrees on the postoperative roentgenograms. This somewhat arbitrary angle assignment allows us to perform the arthroplasty in a timely fashion and to avoid significant malalignment.

Keying from the intramedullary rod helps to prevent flexion or extension of the femoral component. The intramedullary reference permits direct visualization of the anterior and posterior cortices and allows the surgeon to choose the anterior to posterior placement of the femoral component that is the best solution for the relationship of the patellofemoral joint and the tibiofemoral flexion gap.

Although the intramedullary femoral guide does appear to solve most of the femoral problems, the surgeon is still left with the choice of the rotational position. Except in the most deformed cases, the epicondyles of the femur are readily palpable. The difficulty with the epicondyles has been the problem of establishing the exact center of each prominence. Insall has contributed significant insight into the anatomy with his new epicondylar instruments and Rubash has shown that the medial epicondyle has a central depression that can be clearly identified if the overlying synovium is thoroughly removed.8 The central depression can also be confirmed with a circle of marker dots that are placed about the base of the medial epicondylar prominence and then connected across to identify the center of the circle. Krackow's textbook refers to the epicondyles for the rotational alignment.24 Whitesides' article identifies the anteroposterior axis of the femoral sulcus and relates this to the epicondyles and the posterior condylar axis (Fig. 2.1).25 Rubash's work shows the relationship of the posterior condylar axis and the epicondylar axis and confirms the correlation between the two.8

Patellar Preparation

Instruments for cutting the patellar surface are still at the early design level. There are many surgeons who believe that the patella can be best cut with the power saw and a well-trained eye. Even though experience is one of the most valuable instruments, cutting guides can only help to improve the accuracy. The patella is most commonly cut with an oscillating saw locked into a capture slot or with the sawblade resting on a cutting block. It is true that the blade can wobble on the top of a block and can also angle in the cutting slot, if the slot is not made tight enough. There are also cutting devices that encircle the patella and then use a rotating type blade to remove the posterior surface. The holding devices are somewhat bulky and it is also true that the cutting device obscures the patella while the reaming is completed. At the present time, there is no ideal solution and resurfacing of the patella must be completed as accurately as possible. The author uses a rotating type blade and confirms the position in the middle of the reaming so that any necessary correction can be made before the entire procedure is completed with an off angle cut (Fig. 2.8).

Balancing the Knee

After the tibia and the femur have been appropriately prepared, the flexion and extension gaps must be equaled. At the present time, this soft tissue balancing is completed at full extension and at 90 degrees of flexion. Most knee systems do not incorporate an instrument to perform or confirm the balancing. Tensing devices have been introduced that spread the tibia and femur and allow measurements of the gaps that are established with the ligaments balanced. In the past, the instruments have been bulky and have not added precision beyond hand tensioning. Dr. Robert Booth has

Total Knee Replacement Cutting Guide
Figure 2.8. The patellar cutting guide.

developed a new tensor that establishes the soft tissue balance and predicts the size of the femoral component and the thickness of the tibial insert with a comparison from flexion to extension (Fig. 2.9). The author has had the opportunity to use the instrument with some early successes. If such a device can be refined, it may be possible to eliminate some of the guesswork that is involved in matching the flexion and extension spaces.

Total Knee Arthroplasty Patella Plate


Instruments for total knee arthroplasty continue to be refined. Most systems develop the implants and the instruments at the same time with two different teams leading the investigations. There is no question that the more accurate the surgery performed, the better the result and longevity of the prosthesis.

At the present time, extramedullary tibial jigs, intramedullary femoral jigs, and patellar resurfacing with reference to the original thickness represent the standard. Instruments for the flexion and extension balancing are still in their infancy. The references and landmarks for the instruments will probably change over the next few years; however, the principle will remain the same.


1. Insall JN, Scott WN, Ranawat CS. The total condylar knee prosthesis: a report of two hundred and twenty cases. J Bone Joint Surg. 1979; 61(A):173-180.

2. Hungerford DS, Kenna RV. Preliminary experience with a porous coated total knee replacement used without cement. Clin Orthop. 1983; 176:95-107.

3. Moreland JR, Bassett LW, Hanker GJ. Radiographic analysis of the axial alignment of the lower extremity. J Bone Joint Surg. 1987; 69(A):745-749.

4. Krackow KA. The Technique of Total Knee Arthroplasty. St. Louis, Mo: The CV Mosby Company; 1990: Chap. 4, page 87.

5. Insall JN. Surgery of the Knee. 2nd ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1993: Chap. 26, page 745.

6. Lotke PA, Ecker ML. Influence of positioning of prosthesis in total knee replacement. J Bone Joint Surg. 1977; 59(A):77-79.

7. Jiang C-C, Insall JN. Effect of rotation on the axial alignment of the femur. Clin Orthop. 1989; 248:50-56.

8. Berger RA, Rubash HE, Seel MJ, Thompson WH, Crossett LA. Determining the rotational alignment of the femoral component in total knee arthroplasty using the epicondylar axis. Clin Orthop. 1993; 286:40-47.

9. Insall JN. Surgery of the Knee. 2nd ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1993: Chap. 26, page 746.

10. Wolff AM, Hungerford MD, Krackow KA, Jacobs MA. Osteotomy of the tibial tubercle during total knee replacement. J Bone Joint Surg. 1989; 6:848-856.

11. Whiteside LA, Ohl M. Tibial tubercle osteotomy for exposure of the difficult total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop. 1990; 260:6-9.

12. Simmons ED, Sullivan JA, Rackemann S, Scott RD. The accuracy of tibial intramedullary alignment devices in total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 1991; 6:45-50.

13. Tillett ED, Engh GA, Petersen T. A comparative study of extramedullary and intramedullary alignment systems in total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop. 1988; 230:176-181.

14. Petersen TL, Engh GA. Radiographic assessment of knee alignment after total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 1988; 3:67-72.

15. Engh GA, Petersen TL. Comparative experience with intramedullary and extramedullary alignment in total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 1990; 5:1-8.

16. Whiteside LA, Summers RG. Anatomical landmarks for an intramedullary alignment system for total knee replacement. Orthop Trans. 1983; 7:546-547.

17. Manning M, Elloy M, Johnson R. The accuracy of intramedullary alignment in total knee replacement. JBoneJoint Surg. 1988; 70(B):852-858.

18. Brys DA, Lombardi AV, Mallory TH, Vaughn BK. A comparison of intramedullary and extramedullary alignment systems for tibial component placement in TKA. Clin Orthop. 1991; 263:175-179.

19. Cates HE, Ritter MA, Keating EM, Faris PM. Intramedullary versus extramedullary femoral alignment systems in total knee replacement. Clin Orthop. 1993; 286:32-39.

20. Dennis DA, Channer M, Susman MH, Stringer EA. Intramedullary versus extramedullary tibial alignment systems in total knee arthro-plasty. J Arthroplasty. 1993; 8(1):43-47.

21. Laskin RS, Turtel A. The use of an intramedullary tibial alignment guide in TKR arthroplasty. The American J of Knee Surgery. 1989; 2(3):123-130.

22. Siegel JL, Shall LM. Femoral instrumentation using the anterosuperior iliac spine as a landmark in total knee arthroplasty. An anatomic study. J Arthroplasty. 1991; 6(4):317-320.

23. Bertin CB. Intramedullary instrumentation for total knee arthroplasty. In: Goldberg VM, ed. Controversies in Total Knee Arthroplasty. New York: Raven Press, Ltd., 1991; Chap. 18.

24. Krackow KA. The Technique of Total Knee Arthroplasty. St. Louis, Mo: The CV Mosby Company; 1990: Chap. 5, page 137.

25. Whiteside LA, Arima J. The anteroposterior axis for femoral rotation alignment in valgus total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop. 1995; 321: 168-172.

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  • isengar button
    How do you set valgus angle with a valgus knee?
    8 years ago
  • cameron
    Is 15 degree misalignment unaceptable for a TKR?
    8 years ago
  • alistair
    Why choose a 5 degree valgus angle total knee replacement?
    8 years ago
  • Aleandro Cocci
    What is coronal anatomical alignment of the knee?
    7 years ago
  • tony
    What does it mean when intramedullary guide is set for 5 degree valgus?
    7 years ago
  • fiorella
    What Does Anatomic alignment of the knee Mean?
    6 years ago
  • eva
    What is valgus component?
    4 years ago

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