The containment of organisms in the higher ACDP categories, such as P4 (Ebola virus, green monkey disease, Lassa fever, etc.), is a specialist subject and is beyond the scope of this book. The bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent, or prion, presents some extreme and very challenging decontamination problems, also well beyond this text. Standard isolators are regularly used, however, for the containment of lower category pathogens such as tuberculosis, hepatitis, and HIV.
Here, the decontamination emphasis is not only on a cleaning process, but also a sterilisation process. Thus, the various methods for rigorous isolation sterilisation may be applied, such as formaldehyde, PAA, or hydrogen peroxide. These may be used in the liquid or vapour phases, but whichever method is chosen, the method should be validated before routine use. Where waste materials and solutions are removed from biological containment isolators, they should ideally be autoclaved before further disposal.
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