Metabolic Pathways

Blood glucose is constantly being removed into tissues and simultaneously replenished, in a process called glucose turnover. Glucose can enter the blood by absorption from the gut following a meal, or be released from the liver into the blood. Glucose released from the liver is either mobilized from glycogen stores (glycogenolysis) or newly synthesized (gluconeogenesis). Together, glycogenol-ysis and gluconeogenesis constitute hepatic glucose release.

Table 1 Hormonal Control of Glucose Homeostasis

Effect

Insulin

Glucagon

Epinephrine

Growth hormone

Cortisol

Glucose uptake

T

I

4.

¿

i

Glucose production

Glycogenolysis

1

T

T

T

T

Gluconeogenesis

i

T

T

Î

T

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