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[Diet therapy of diabetes] hypoglycemia and treatment of, 5758, 203-205 insulin programs for inpatients receiving: enteral nutrition, 164—166 meals, 161-163 parenteral nutrition, 166 meal planning strategies, 54-57 nutrition needs in inpatients, 155-156 in pregnancy, 145-146 USDA food pyramid, 55 DIGAMI study, 157, 170 DKA (see Diabetic ketoacidosis) Dosing adjustments, 107-109,208-210 bedtime insulin in type 2 diabetes, protocol, 123 in insulin pumps, 230-231 rule oF 1500 or 1800, 108-109, 209,

230-231 sliding scales and problems with: in hospitalized patients, 158-160 in outpatients, 107-109, 208

Education (see Diabetes education) Elderly and hypoglycemia risk, 199 Exchange list for meal planning, 56 Exercise and insulin therapy, 95 in children, 134

reducing insulin to avoid hypoglycemia, 207

Fasting glucose level, 61-63, 65-68 hepatic glucose production in the control of, 7, 61-62 Fool care, 19

Fructosamjne test to assess glycemic control, 7

Glargine insubn, 80—81 cannot mix with other insulins, 30, 81, 101

intensive insulin program with mealtime short-acting insulin analog, 100-102

not proven for use in pregnancy, 144 use in children, 132

Glucose homeostasis (see Physiology of blood glucose level) Glucotoxicity and reversal by insulin therapy, 118 Glycated hemoglobin (see Hemoglobin A,J

Glycemic control: assessment of, 6-7 by fructosamine, 7 by hemoglobin A,L. (HbAlc), 5-6, 15-16, 114 blood glucose guidelines for, 15, 92, 229

contribution of fasting and postprandial glucose level to, 7-10 insulin pump success in achieving, 224

postprandial glucose levels contribution to, 8-10 rationale and strategies for achieving, 1-11

in pregnancy, 140-142 to prevent macrovascular complications, 6, 113 to prevent microvascular complications, 2-6 in type 1 diabetes, 2-3 in type 2 diabetes, 3-6 relationship to diabetes complications, 1-11

studies showing benefit of: Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) in type I diabetes, 2-3, 92-94, 195, 1% Kumamoto Study in type 2 diabetes, 3-4

Stockholm Diabetes Intervention

Study in type I diabetes, 3 United Kingdom Prospective Diabe-l&s Study (UKPDS) in type 2 diabetes, 4-6 lests lo assess, 6-7 Goals oF treatment (see Treatment guidelines)

Guidelines of treatment (see Treatment guidelines)

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Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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