A variety of devices are available to help those with technical or emotional difficulties with injections, including insulin pens, automatic needle injectors, needle-free jet injectors, and aids for the visually impaired (Table 3). Also, contact your local or state Division of the Blind to learn about local resources.
concentration. Two measurement technologies are commonly used: color-reflectance meters, which use strips impregnated with the enzyme glucose oxidase and a color indicator system for the chemical reaction, and meters that measure electrical current produced by the chemical reaction. Visual-read test strips are also available, but are not nearly as accurate as meter-read samples. Urine glucose testing is obsolete because it cannot detect hypoglycemia or even assess blood sugars in the recommended range since most individuals start spilling glucose into their urine when glycemia exceeds 180 mg/dl. However, urine testing is better than nothing for individuals who refuse blood glucose monitoring.
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