H, Stephens L, Jackson TR. 1-Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity is required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport but not for RAS activation in CHO cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994; 91:7415-7419.

37. Shepherd PR, Nave BT, Siddle K. Insulin stimulation of glycogen synthesis and glycogen synthase activity is blocked by wortmannin and rapamycin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes: evidence for the involvement of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and p70 ribosomal protein-S6 kinase. Biochem J 1995; 305:25-28.

38. Mendez R, Myers MGJ, White MF, Rhoads RE. Stimulation of protein synthesis, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E phosphorylation, and PHAS-I phosphory-lation by insulin requires insulin receptor substrate 1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Mol Cell Biol 1996; 16:2857-2864.

39. Sutherland C, Waltner-Law M, Gnudi L, Kahn BB, Granner DK. Activation of the ras mitogen-activated protein kinase-ribosomal protein kinase pathway is not required for the repression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene transcription by insulin. J Biol Chem 1998; 273:3198-3204.

40. Frevert EU, Kahn BB. Differential effects of constitutively active phosphatidylino-sitol 3-kinase on glucose transport, glycogen synthase activity, and DNA synthesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Mol Cell Biol 1997; 17:190-198.

41. Tanti JF, Gremeaux T, Grillo S, Calleja V, Klippel A, Williams LT, Van Obberghen E, Le Marchand-Brustel Y. Overexpression of a constitutively active form of phos-phatidylinositol 3-kinase is sufficient to promote Glut 4 translocation in adipocytes. J Biol Chem 1996; 271:25227-25232.

42. Shepherd PR, Kahn BB. Glucose transporters and insulin action—implications for insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1999; 341:248-257.

43. Beck-Nielsen H. Mechanisms of insulin resistance in non-oxidative glucose metabolism: the role of glycogen synthase. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 1998; 9(2-4):255-279.

44. Quon MJ, Chen H, Ing BL, Liu ML, Zarnowski MJ, Yonezawa K, Kasuga M, Cushman SW, Taylor SI. Roles of 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and ras in regulating translocation of GLUT4 in transfected rat adipose cells. Mol Cell Biol 1995; 15:5403-5411.

45. Clarke JF, Young PW, Yonezawa K, Kasuga M, Holman GD. Inhibition of the translocation of GLUT1 and GLUT4 in 3T3-L1 cells by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, wortmannin. Biochem J 1994; 300:631-635.

46. Herbst JJ, Andrews GC, Contillo LG, Singleton DH, Genereux PE, Gibbs EM, Lienhard GE. Effect of the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase by a thio-phosphotyrosine peptide on glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J Biol Chem 1995; 270:26000-26005.

47. Katagiri H, Asano T, Ishihara H, Inukai K, Shibasaki Y, Kikuchi M, Yazaki Y, Oka Y. Overexpression of catalytic subunit p110alpha of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase increases glucose transport activity with translocation of glucose transporters in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J Biol Chem 1996; 271:16987-16990.

48. Tsakiridis T, McDowell HE, Walker T, Downes CP, Hundal HS, Vranic M, Klip A. Multiple roles of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in regulation of glucose transport, amino acid transport, and glucose transporters in L6 skeletal muscle cells. a Endocrinology 1995; 136:4315-4322.

Diabetes Sustenance

Diabetes Sustenance

Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Be A Success At Dealing With Diabetes The Healthy Way. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To Learning How Nutritional Supplements Can Control Sugar Levels.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment