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Diabetes mellitus

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tolerance (IGT), or diabetes mellitus, depending on the level of the fasting and/or 2-h post-glucose-challenge plasma glucose as described in Table 1 (1). Diabetes mellitus is classified depending on the etiology of the hyperglycemia (Table 2). Four major categories of diabetes mellitus have been defined: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, other specific types of diabetes and gestational diabetes (1). Type 1 diabetes is characterized by severe insulin deficiency that is life threatening and requires insulin treatment for survival. Both insulin deficiency and insulin resistance, each of which may vary from minimal through very severe, characterize type 2 diabetes. Other specific types of diabetes are those conditions in which the underlying etiology is known. Gestational diabetes is hyperglycemia that occurs in the third trimester of pregnancy and usually disappears after delivery only to reappear as permanent type 2 or type 1 diabetes years later.

Table 2 Classification of Diabetes Mellitus

Type l diabetes Type 2 diabetes

Other specific types

Beta-cell destruction usually leading to absolute insulin deficiency. Need exogenous insulin for survival.

Heterogeneous disorder of unknown etiology characterized by varying degrees of insulin secretory deficiency and insulin resistance.

Genetic abnormalities causing deficient beta-cell function; genetic abnormalities interfering with insulin action; pancreatic diseases causing loss of beta-cell function; endocrinopathies, drug or chemical-induced; infections; uncommon forms of immune-mediated diabetes; other genetic syndromes sometimes associated with diabetes.

Gestational diabetes mellitus

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