Hazard Identification

The function ofcollectins is usually measured in opsonization assays. Traditionally, MBL activity is determined in a yeast assay (Turner et al., 1985). Antimicrobial factors in the alveolar lining fluids (e.g., surfactants A and D) are also determined by opsonization. In the assays, the opsonized bacteria are usually Staphylococcus aureus (Coonrod and Yoneda, 1983).

In the rat, only surfactant A acts as an opsonin for phagocytosis (Pikaar et al., 1995). Flow cytometry has been used to detect the opsonization of Escherichia coli by rat alveolar macrophages. The data are expressed as percent microorganism killed.

NK cells can kill several different tumor cells. The lysis of K562 or YAK target cells by human, mouse, or rat NK cells can be measured in chromium release assays.

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