Host Response in Endophthalmitis

Significant progress has been made over the last several decades in elucidating the mechanisms involved in maintaining ocular immune privilege. However, the studies have, until recently, largely focused on immune privilege as it pertains to adaptive immunity and T cell-mediated inflammation. Immune privilege also affects innate immunity. The aqueous humor contains multiple factors that directly inhibit innate immunity including i TGF-P, soluble Fas ligand FasL , and a-melanocyte-stimulating...

Mucosal Immune Defense Mechanisms at the Ocular Surface

Ocular Immune Defence

The anatomy and leukocyte cell types clearly show that a mucosal immune system is maintained at the normal human ocular surface and mucosal adnexa. Fig. 1. The eye-associated lymphoid tissue EALT is the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue for immune protection of the ocular surface and its mucosal adnexa. It is anatomically continuous from the lacrimal gland throughout the conjunctiva- and lacrimal drainage-associated lymphoid tissue i.e. CALT and LDALT, respectively . It consists of a diffuse...

The Revival of Immune Surveillance

Experimental support of immune surveillance began to emerge in the middle 1990s with the development and testing of a variety of mutant mice that were deficient in one or more components of innate or adaptive immune systems. The first evidence came from a series of experimental models that eliminated interferon IFN -7, an important cytokine produced mainly by T cells, natural killer NK cells, and NKT cells. Mice treated with neutralizing antibodies for IFN-7 and then given transplanted...

The Immunoediting Hypothesis

Mice Tumor

Dunn et al. 27 recently proposed the immunoediting hypothesis which they considered an extension of the immune surveillance theory that explained situations in which immune surveillance failed to protect the host from malignant transformation. It is obvious that, even in an immune-competent host, spontaneous tumors still develop. This means that although immune surveillance is fully functional, some tumors still escape immune detection and grow progressively. Thus, immune surveillance appeared...