Discover The Secret Of Immortality

Discover The Secret Of Immotality

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Author: Chris George
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Who wants to live forever

Been brewed from yeast isolated from a bottle of porter ale which was taken from the wreck of a sailing barge that lay off the coast of the English port of Littlehampton for 166 years. Somewhat more controversial are reports of bacteria that may be millions of years old. Bacteria have been isolated from rocks, salt deposits and permafrost (permanently frozen soil). Many have doubted these reports since it is difficult to prove that samples have not been contaminated with bacteria of more recent origin. The most convincing claims concern those from specimens that are naturally protected against contamination. Bacterial spores (from the genus Bacillus) were isolated from a bee preserved in amber estimated to be 20-40 million years old. The material was protected against contamination by the amber, the surface of which was carefully sterilised before the sample was taken. Bacteria (also a Bacillus) have been isolated from liquid inclusions enclosed within salt crystals and estimated to...

Chromosomes the Cell Cycle and Cell Division

In 1951, 31-year-old Henrietta Lacks entered Johns Hopkins Hospital to be treated for a cancerous tumor. Although she died a few months later, her tumor cells are still alive today. Scientists found that, given adequate nourishment, cancerous cells from the tumor could reproduce themselves indefinitely in a laboratory dish, where they grew as a formless mass. These HeLa cells became a test-tube model for many studies of human biology. Over the past half-century, tens of thousands of research articles have been published using information obtained from Henrietta's cells. But are these immortal cells really a good model for human biology

In Vivo Application Of Antibodies

Usually the mammalian immune system is used to generate antibodies of particular specificities. As shown in Figure 6, antigen-induced humoral immune response leads to a predetermined spectrum of specific antibodies, which can be rescued for various methods of in vitro production, for permanent or transient B-cell immortalization, or for gene isolation. Once the ability to produce antibodies is preserved in an immortal hybridoma cell line or the genes are accessible in a transiently immortalized B-cell-transformed by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a broad network of technologies for stable expression can be applied (see Fig. 7 for an overview). In the following chapters these technologies and techniques are described in more detail.

Cellular Proliferation And Communication 321 Growth Patterns

Cells also need a solid support because of their anchorage dependency. Cell growth is limited by contact inhibition, attained when a continuous monolayer has been formed. The lifespan of cultured normal cells is limited, e.g., fibroblasts stop growing and die after 30 to 50 divisions. Cells from malignant tumors are capable of an infinite number of population doublings (immortality) as long as nutrients are present, even in suboptimal proportions. The growth of cancer cells does not require anchorage and is not limited by contact inhibition or adhesiveness. Cancer cells are also characterized by loss of control at checkpoints in the cell cycle (see later).

Monoclonal Antibodies

The fusion of a B lymphocyte with a cancerous cell produces a potentially immortal hybrid that undergoes cell division and produces a clone, called a hybridoma. Each hybridoma secretes large amounts of identical monoclonal antibodies. From among the thousands of hybridomas produced in this way, the one that produces the desired antibody is cultured for large-scale production and the rest are discarded (fig. 15.24).

Antigens and Antibodies

Antibody-producing lymphocytes of limited life span with immortal tumor plasma cells. Because of their high specificity in binding to target antigens, MoAbs from hybridomas are now used in diagnosis, as immunological probes in a variety of assays, and in therapy, to deliver radiation (yoked to radionucleotides) or other therapy directly to cancerous tissues.

Introduction and background

Interests in aging and senescence have characterized human thought since the earliest of recorded histories. Ancient Egyptian papyri and Chinese medical treatises, along with the writings of Aristotle and Socrates, describe various aspects of senescence and chronic degenerative conditions. They also detail methods for halting the insidious loss of function that accompanies longevity. Thoughts of mortality and immortality likely characterized the minds of our earliest Homo ancestors as well. The search for ways to halt the functional losses associated with growing old continues today. Humans are a long-lived species by any available standard. We are also unusual in that we remember our past and worry about the future characteristics that we may share with a few other long-lived species or that may set us apart from all other species on earth. Long life provides ample time and opportunity to observe and remark on differences in longevity and vitality among relatives, friends, and...

The Central Dogma and the origin of life

The fable about the origin of life from protoplasmal primordial atomic globules in a racemic Urschleim can not be killed with facts, does not fade away, and appears to be immortal The Scripps Research Institute celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of Miller's landmark experiment sic on June 10,

Cell Growth And Differentiation In Vitro

Replicative senescence is not a recent concept. In contrast to established tumour cell lines such as HeLa, most cells are not immortal in culture. It was suggested over forty years ago that normal human cells had a limit on the number of divisions that they could undergo 88 . The discovery of telomeres (tandem repeats of non-coding DNA found at the end of chromosomes) and their progressive shortening with replication and age suggested an explanation for cell senescence 89-91 which was confirmed by overexpression of telomerase (an enzyme that maintains telomere length) in normal human fibroblasts which caused their immortalization 92,93 . The limit on the number of rounds of division a cell can undergo is a severe obstacle in producing large banks of high quality cells for therapy. While there are molecular mechanisms for over- or re-expressing telomerase in cells, there are obvious concerns about tumorigenicity of immortalised cells post-implantation. Mechanisms for stopping growth or...

Creating Life in the Laboratory

Comprehending the detailed building plan of organisms does not only clarify the working of body processes it will also enable changes of the body plan. One particular change could concern, for instance, the process of aging, which is a property of all multicellular life (Chap. 7). Within the past decade, it has become clear that apoptosis, or programmed celldeath, is an important tool in the construction of organs during the growth of an embryo. Aging and programmed cell death are also global strategies of nature, developed a billion years ago to cope better in the battle for survival. As mentioned in Chap. 7, the human body, like that of other higher life forms, contains a small number of germinal cells that are essentially immortal, and an overwhelming number of somatic cells, equipped with a self-destruct mechanism that sets in after about 50 cell divisions. What is the exact purpose of this death program, and does it still make sense for us today Is there a chance that programmed...

Androids and Miniaturization

There is another foreseeable development that will come from the full understanding of the construction plan of our brain. Stripping that plan of its specialized instructions used for building blocks made from organic chemistry, and exchanging them with commands to assemble suitable modern computer components, a self-conscious, nonbiological brain may one day be built. As a result, many biological limitations - such as, for example, the isolation due to confinement in a body, the restriction to five senses, the slow speed of nerve signals, or mortality - would no longer apply. An intelligent brain in a suitable mechanical body, a so-called android, would easily connect with others, rapidly communicate by electronic means, and essentially be immortal, except for accidental death. In addition, androids would probably have very different sizes. Most likely, due to costs, they would be much smaller. Our brain, with a diameter of about 15 cm, contains roughly 1011 neurons with sizes of...

Malignant Transformation of Cells

Are said to have undergone malignant transformation, and they often exhibit properties in vitro similar to those of cancer cells. For example, they have decreased requirements for growth factors and serum, are no longer anchorage-dependent, and grow in a density-independent fashion. Moreover, both cancer cells and transformed cells can be subcultured indefinitely that is, for all practical purposes, they are immortal. Because of the similar properties of cancer and transformed cells, the process of malignant transformation has been studied extensively as a model of cancer induction.

Cloned Lymphoid Cell Lines

Normal mammalian cells generally have a finite life span in culture that is, after a number of population doublings characteristic of the species and cell type, the cells stop dividing. In contrast, tumor cells or normal cells that have undergone transformation induced by chemical carcinogens or viruses can be propagated indefinitely in tissue culture thus, they are said to be immortal. Such cells are referred to as cell lines.

Radiolabeling Techniques Allow Sensitive Detection of Antigens or Antibodies

Cell Hybridoma

Production of B-cell and T-cell hybridomas by somatic-cell hybridization. The resulting hybridomas express some of the genes of the original normal B or T cell but also exhibit the immortal-growth properties of the tumor cell. This procedure is used to produce B-cell hybridomas that secrete monoclonal antibody and T-cell hybridomas that secrete various growth factors.

How to rid ESC cultures of contaminating feeder cells

If the fibroblasts are an immortal line, they can be diluted by panning the more adhesive fibroblasts in dissociated cultures on a series of tissue culture dishes, or by serially passaging a small portion of the center of a hESC colony. If the feeders are a different species, immunosurgery (complement-mediated lysis) has been used successfully to remove them.

A toolbox for reasoning

Let me add a certain virile reply recorded by De Quincey (Writings XI, 226). Someone flung a glass of wine in the face of a gentleman during a theological or literary debate. The victim did not show any emotion and said to the offender 'This, sir, is a digression now, if you please, for the argument.' (The author of that reply, a certain Dr Henderson, died in Oxford around 1787, without leaving us any memory other than those just words a sufficient and beautiful immortality.)

Hybrid Lymphoid Cell Lines

T-cell hybridomas can also be obtained by fusing T lymphocytes with cancerous T-cell lymphomas. Again, the resulting hybridoma continues to express the genes of the normal T cell but acquires the immortal-growth properties of the cancerous T lymphoma cell. Immunologists have generated a number of stable hybridoma cell lines representing T-helper and T-cytotoxic lineages.

Asexual Plant Propagation

Or do we If you are particularly fond of your grandmother's African violet plant, you can use a leaf to propagate a new plant. As that plant begins to age, you can propagate a new one again from a leaf and eventually pass the plant on to your grandchildren. This plant could be propagated indefinitely and would essentially live forever.

Candidate Cancer Stem Cell Markers

The situation is similar in prostate cancer. Stem cells account for approximately 0.1 of the prostate tumor mass and display a CD44+ a2P1hi CD133+ phenotype. Only the CD133+ cells show capability for self-renewal and immortality in vitro. Prostate cancer cells that do not express CD133, but are still CD44+ a2P1hi are identified as transiently amplifying progeny. However, no correlation could be found between the number of CD44+ a2P1hi CD133+ cells and tumor grade 134 . In another study, the CD44+ cells were characterized as more tumorigenic, meta-static and having higher mRNA levels of sternness genes 157 . CD44 glycopro-tein is an adhesion molecule that is involved in cell signaling and occurs in multiple splice variants. Like the CD133 molecule, CD44 is also found on normal prostate stem cells as well as on mature tumor cells and normal tissues, thus its importance to cancer stem cell biology and function is still poorly understood.

Multicellularity the Formation of Organs and Programmed Cell Death

Chordate Evolution

Such simple blastula-like organisms still exist today in Volvox. Like all multicellular life forms, Volvox has two cell types, somatic (or body cells) and germinal (or reproductive cells). Volvox has about 2000 two-flagellate somatic cells which form the spheroid, and 16 large germ cells in its interior. These germ cells divide and build juveniles. Reaching maturity, the blastula ruptures and the juveniles are released. After this, the ruptured parental blastula dies. This points to another important fact of life, which came about with multicellularity, programmed cell death, called apoptosis. Unicellular organisms, which reproduce by simple cell division, are essentially immortal, except for mishaps or being eaten. That the death of the parental Volvox is programmed, and not a necessity, has been demonstrated by the discovery that a mutation in a single gene abolishes apoptosis, rendering immortality to that organism (Gilbert 1997). Why all multicellular organisms have vastly...

Functional Interactions Between Hpvs And Keratinocytes

Indicative of a transforming potential of the protein, as the HPV-1 E7 protein tightly associates with pRb but fails to transform cells in culture (109). The HPV-10 E7 protein lacks this pRb binding motif entirely, suggesting that the virus uses other mechanisms to overcome this growth suppressive pathway. Furthermore, in contrast to the HPV-16 E7 protein, the E7 proteins of HPV types 8 and 47 fail to transform rodent cells (110,111). Yet, in cooperation with activated Ha-ras the HPV-5 and -8 E7 genes are able to give rise to transformed colonies, and the HPV-1 E7 gene can fully transform mouse C127 cells (112). The HPV-16 E7 protein has also been shown to associate with the p21 protein (113,114), a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, whose expression is induced by p53 in response to DNA damage and in a p53-independent manner in keratinocyte differentiation. Cells expressing the HPV-16 E7 protein show altered differentiation and an inhibition of PCNA and cyclin A E-associated kinase...

The complexities of cancer

We have seen that numerous mutations that promote tumor growth can arise. These mutations alter the normal processes that govern proliferation and apoptosis (Figure 17-24). The story does not end here, however. There is evidence that other modes of gene inactivation, such as epigenetic imprinting, can produce tumor-promoting lesions. There is also evidence that the overexpression of telomerase is another condition required for cell immortality, a feature of cancer cells. (Normal human somatic cells can undergo only a relatively small number of divisions before their telomeres are reduced in size to the point at which the cells can no longer grow. In human tumor cells, however, the length of the telomeres appears to be substantially extended, proba-

Benefits of Cooperation

Finally, group living allows the coordination of the efforts of individuals to accomplish complex tasks normally restricted to the higher vertebrates. The similarities between insect societies and human society are striking. An insect society is often referred to as a superorganism, reflecting the remarkable degree of coordination between individual insects. Individual workers have been likened to cells in a body, and castes to tissues or organs that perform specialized functions. Insect societies are not immortal however, they often persist in a single location for periods similar to the life spans of much larger animals. The social insects have one of the most highly developed symbolic languages outside human cultures. Further, social insects have evolved complex and often mutually beneficial interactions with other species to a degree unknown except among human beings. Bees are inseparably linked with the flowers they feed upon and pollinate. Ants have actually developed...

Other molecular tests

Telomerase is a nuclear enzyme that regenerates the terminal ends of chromosomes normally broken off with each mitosis, and is found at high levels in malignant cells. Expression of this enzyme, and hence regeneration of the telomeric DNA which would otherwise be lost, is responsible for the in vitro immortality characteristic of malignantly transformed cells. The TRAP assay can measure telomerase activity in exfoliated urothelial cells, and sensitivities have been reported to be about 80 for each grade of TCC, although other studies have shown the sensitivity of the test to be much lower than that.39,40 Other assays can now detect messenger RNA for this enzyme and may be even more sensitive. While occasionally normal white blood cells can express small amounts of telomerase, in general the specificity and positive predictive value of this assay is very high, since few other non-malignant cells will express it. Because of their complexity and lack of sensitivity, assays for the...

Z22865

These mutations affect genes that are critical for the timing of cell division (proto-oncogenes), which then become oncogenes that instruct a cell to divide repeatedly without control. Usually, the cell has other genes for countering such mutations, but if these other genes are also affected then the cell forms a tumour (a mass of cells) that continues to grow. Somehow cancer cells achieve 'immortality' in that telomere reduction with each replication does not appear to affect the ability of the tumour to grow. Many tumours are benign or non-malignant in that they do not pose a danger, as long as there is room for growth of the tumour but if the tumour blocks the normal functioning of other cells, or if the tumour metastatizes (cancerous cells can move from part of the body to another if they enter the circulatory system) and starts developing in other parts of the body so that they become life-threatening, the tumour becomes malignant. For instance, melanoma is a cancer of pigmented...

Other Plant Hormones

Ethylene is also theorized to hasten senescence, perhaps by either contributing to a decline of metabolic rate or interfering with RNA synthesis or protein manufacture. The argument regarding senescence in both plants and animals is that organisms, or the cells of organisms, are born to die. In plants, this process seems to be advanced by ethylene and delayed by auxins, gibberellins, or a combination of both. It is interesting to note that woody perennials seem to challenge the concept of the aging process being normal. These trees seem to have no mechanism to bring growth to a close. Growth occurs in cambium and presumably can continue without limit. Of course, trees do not live forever. They fall prey to infection or fire or if the bark is so thick as to protect them from infection and fire (as is the case with the giant Sequoias of California), perhaps they grow until they eventually fall under their own weight.

The Cell Cycle

Unlike the life of an organism, which can be viewed as a linear progression from birth to death, the life of a cell follows a cyclical pattern. Each cell is produced as a part of its parent cell when the daughter cell divides, it in turn becomes two new cells. In a sense, then, each cell is potentially immortal as long as its progeny can continue to divide. Some cells in the body divide frequently the epidermis of the skin, for example, is renewed approximately every 2 weeks, and the stomach lining is renewed every 2 or 3 days. Other cells, such as striated muscle cells in the adult, do not divide at all. All cells in the body, of course, live only as long as the person lives (some cells live longer than others, but eventually all cells die when vital functions cease).

Scavengers

Scarab beetles are one of the twelve thousand species of colorful beetles, which grow up to six inches long. They have horns on their heads or thoraxes. Males use the horns in combat during mating. Many beetles eat carrion. Dung beetles are most often called scarabs. Some scarabs (tumble bugs) form dung into balls and roll it into their burrows. There it becomes food for them or for their larvae, hatched from eggs deposited on the pellets. Ancient Egyptians worshiped tumble bugs, viewing the dung pellets as symbolizing the world and the scarab horns as symbolizing the sun's rays. Thinking that scarabs caused good fortune and immortality, they used scarab carvings as charms and replaced the hearts of the embalmed dead with carved scarabs.

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