The Hypocretins In Addiction And Hyperarousal

21. HYPOCRETIN AND BRAIN REWARD FUNCTION 317

Benjamin Boutrel, Paul J. Kenny, Athina Markou, and George F. Koob

1. INTRODUCTION 317

2. LATERAL HYPOTHALAMIC SELF-STIMULATION AND THE HYPOCRETIN SYSTEM 318

2.1. Lateral Hypothalamic Self-Stimulation Paradigm 318

2.2. Lateral Hypothalamic Self-Stimulation May Activate Hypocretin

Neurons 318

3. BRAIN REWARD CIRCUITRY AND HYPOCRETIN PROJECTIONS 319

4. HYPOCRETIN AND BRAIN REWARD MODULATION 320

5. HYPOCRETIN AND RELAPSE FOR DRUG-SEEKING 321

6. SUMMARY AND PERSPECTIVES 322

7. REFERENCES 323

22. OREXIN/HYPOCRETIN AND OPIOID DEPENDENCE 327

Ralph J. DiLeone

1. INTRODUCTION 327

2. EARLY STUDIES OF THE LH 327

3. THE VIEW OF THE LH IN THE MODERN HYPOTHALAMUS 328

4. NEW LH PEPTIDES 328

5. THE HYPOTHALAMUS AND ADDICTION 329

5.1. The LH and Drugs of Abuse 329

6. ORX/HCRT NEURONS RESPOND TO CHRONIC MORPHINE AND MORPHINE WITHDRAWAL 329

7. THE ORX/HCRT GENE IS UPREGULATED AFTER PRECIPITATED MORPHINE WITHDRAWAL 331

8. ORX/HCRT NEURONS EXPRESS THE ^-OPIOID RECEPTOR 331

9. ORX/HCRT KNOCKOUT MICE SHOW ATTENUATED MORPHINE WITHDRAWAL 332

10. SUMMARY OF ORX/HCRT DATA 333

11. INTERPRETATION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ADDICTION

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