1. B. Griffond, P. Y. Risold, C. Jacquemard, C. Colard and D. Fellmann, Insulin-induced hypoglycemia increases preprohypocretin (orexin) mRNA in the rat lateral hypothalamic area, Neurosci Lett. 262, 77-80 (1999).
2. T. Moriguchi, T. Sakurai, T. Nambu, M. Yanagisawa and K. Goto, Neurons containing orexin in the lateral hypothalamic area of the adult rat brain are activated by insulin-induced acute hypoglycemia, Neurosci Lett. 264, 101-104 (1999).
3. X. J. Cai, M. L. Evans, C. A. Lister, R. A. Leslie, J. R. Arch, S. Wilson and G. Williams, Hypoglycemia activates orexin neurons and selectively increases hypothalamic orexin-B levels: responses inhibited by feeding and possibly mediated by the nucleus of the solitary tract, Diabetes 50, 105-112 (2001).
4. X. J. Cai, P. S. Widdowson, J. Harrold, S. Wilson, R. E. Buckingham, J. R. Arch, M. Tadayyon, J. C.
Clapham, J. Wilding and G. Williams, Hypothalamic orexin expression: modulation by blood glucose and feeding, Diabetes 48, 2132-2137 (1999).
5. K. P. Briski and P. W. Sylvester, Hypothalamic orexin-A-immunpositive neurons express Fos in response to central glucopenia, Neuroreport 12, 531-534 (2001).
6. A. Yamanaka, C. T. Beuckmann, J. T. Willie, J. Hara, N. Tsujino, M. Mieda, M. Tominaga, K. Yagami, F.
Sugiyama, K. Goto, M. Yanagisawa and T. Sakurai, Hypothalamic orexin neurons regulate arousal according to energy balance in mice, Neuron 38, 701-713(2003).
7. L. L. Bernardis and L. L. Bellinger, The lateral hypothalamic area revisited: ingestive behavior, Neurosci
Biobehav Rev. 20, 189-287 (1996)
8. S. Muroya, K. Uramura, T. Sakurai, M. Takigawa and T. Yada, Lowering glucose concentrations increases cytosolic Ca(2+) in orexin neurons of the rat lateral hypothalamus, Neurosci Lett. 309, 165-168 (2001).
9. P. Y. Risold, B. Griffond, T. S. Kilduff, J. G. Sutcliffe and D. Fellmann, Preprohypocretin (orexin) and prolactin-like immunoreactivity are coexpressed by neurons of the rat lateral hypothalamic area, Neurosci Lett. 259, 153-156 (1999)
10. M. Bahjaoui-Bouhaddi, D. Fellmann and C. Bugnon, Induction of Fos-immunoreactivity in prolactin-like containing neurons of the rat lateral hypothalamus after insulin treatment, Neurosci Lett. 168, 11-15 (1994).
11. D. L. Tempel and S. F. Leibowitz, Adrenal steroid receptors: interactions with brain neuropeptide systems in relation to nutrient intake and metabolism, JNeuroendocrinol. 6, 479-501 (1994).
12. M. Tschop, D. L. Smiley and M. L. Heiman, Ghrelin induces adiposity in rodents, Nature. 407, 908-913
13. A. Stricker-Krongrad and B. Beck, Modulation of hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin mRNA expression by glucocorticoids, Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 296, 129-133 (2002).
14. .K. Toshinai, Y. Date, N. Murakami, M. Shimada, M. S. Mondal, T. Shimbara, J. L. Guan, Q. P. Wang, H.
Funahashi, T. Sakurai, S. Shioda, S. Matsukura, K. Kangawa and M. Nakazato, Ghrelin-induced food intake is mediated via the orexin pathway, Endocrinology 144, 1506-1512 (2003).
15. P. K. Olszewski, D. Li, M. K. Grace, C. J. Billington, C. M. Kotz and A. S. Levine, Neural basis of orexigenic effects of ghrelin acting within lateral hypothalamus, Peptides 24, 597-602 (2003).
16. T. M. Hahn, J. F. Breininger, D. G. Baskin and M. W. Schwartz, Coexpression of Agrp and NPY in fasting-
activated hypothalamic neurons, Nat Neurosci. 1, 271-272 (1998).
17. E. Savontaus, I. M. Conwell and S. L. Wardlaw, Effects of adrenalectomy on AGRP, POMC, NPY and
CART gene expression in the basal hypothalamus of fed and fasted rats, Brain Res. 958, 130-138 (2002).
18. M. Nakazato, N. Murakami, Y. Date, M. Kojima, H. Matsuo, K. Kangawa and S. Matsukura, A role for ghrelin in the central regulation of feeding, Nature 409, 194-198 (2001).
19. M. C. Garcia, M. Lopez, O. Gualillo, L. M. Seoane, C. Dieguez and R. M. Senaris, Hypothalamic levels of
NPY, MCH, and prepro-orexin mRNA during pregnancy and lactation in the rat: role of prolactin, Faseb J. 17, 1392-1400 (2003).
20. P. Chen, C. Li, C. Haskell-Luevano, R. D. Cone and M. S. Smith, Altered expression of agouti-related protein and its colocalization with neuropeptide Y in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus during lactation, Endocrinology 140, 2645-2650 (1999).
21. M. Rocha, C. Bing, G. Williams and M. Puerta, Pregnancy-induced hyperphagia is associated with increased gene expression of hypothalamic agouti-related peptide in rats, Regul Pept. 114, 159-165 (2003).
22. K. E. Wortley, G. Q. Chang, Z. Davydova and S. F. Leibowitz, Orexin gene expression is increased during states of hypertriglyceridemia, Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 284, R1454-1465 (2003).
23. G. Q. Chang, O. Karatayev, Z. Davydova and S. F. Leibowitz, Circulating triglycerides impact on orexigenic peptides and neuronal activity in hypothalamus, Endocrinology 145, 3904-3912 (2004).
24. M. Odorizzi, J. P. Max, P. Tankosic, C. Burlet and A. Burlet, Dietary preferences of Brattleboro rats correlated with an overexpression of galanin in the hypothalamus, Eur J Neurosci. 11, 3005-3014 (1999).
25. G. S. Martinez, L. Smale and A. A. Nunez, Diurnal and nocturnal rodents show rhythms in orexinergic neurons, Brain Res. 955, 1-7 (2002).
26. Y. Yoshida, N. Fujiki, T. Nakajima, B. Ripley, H. Matsumura, H. Yoneda, E. Mignot and S. Nishino,
Fluctuation of extracellular hypocretin-1 (orexin A) levels in the rat in relation to the light-dark cycle and sleep-wake activities, Eur J Neurosci. 14, 1075-1081 (2001).
27. G. Shor-Posner, C. Ian, G. Brennan, T. Cohn, H. Moy, A. Ning and S. F. Leibowitz, Self-selecting albino rats exhibit differential preferences for pure macronutrient diets: characterization of three subpopulations, Physiol Behav. 50, 1187-1195 (1991).
29. R. H. Eckel and R. J. Robbins, Lipoprotein lipase is produced, regulated, and functional in rat brain, Proc
30. M. Merkel, R. H. Eckel and I. J. Goldberg, Lipoprotein lipase: genetics, lipid uptake, and regulation, J Lipid
31. H. Wang, L. H. Storlien and X. F. Huang, Influence of dietary fats on c-Fos-like immunoreactivity in mouse hypothalamus, Brain Res. 843, 184-192 (1999).
32. Y. Oomura, T. Nakamura, M. Sugimori and Y. Yamada, Effect of free fatty acid on the rat lateral hypothalamic neurons, Physiol Behav. 14, 483-486 (1975).
33. J. A. Levine, N. L. Eberhardt and M. D. Jensen, Role of nonexercise activity thermogenesis in resistance to fat gain in humans, Science. 283, 212-214 (1999).
34. A. A. Butler, D. L. Marks, W. Fan, C. M. Kuhn, M. Bartolome and R. D. Cone, Melanocortin-4 receptor is required for acute homeostatic responses to increased dietary fat, Nat Neurosci. 4, 605-611 (2001).
35. K. Kiwaki, C. M. Kotz, C. Wang, L. Lanningham-Foster and J. A. Levine, Orexin A (hypocretin 1) injected into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and spontaneous physical activity in rats, Am J Physiol EndocrinolMetab. 286, E551-559 (2004).
36. J. Hara, C. T. Beuckmann, T. Nambu, J. T. Willie, R. M. Chemelli, C. M. Sinton, F. Sugiyama, K. Yagami,
37. T. L. Horvath, S. Diano and A. N. van den Pol, Synaptic interaction between hypocretin (Orexin) and neuropeptide Y cells in the rodent and primate hypothalamus: A novel circuit implicated in metabolic and endocrine regulations, J Neurosci. 19, 1072-1087 (1999).
38. M. Hakansson, L. De Lecea, J. G. Sutcliffe, M. Yanagisawa and B. Meister, Leptin receptor- and STAT3-
immunoreactivities in Hypocretin/Orexin neurones of the lateral hypothalamus, J Neuroendocrinol. 11, 653-663 (1999).
39. B. Beck and S. Richy, Hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin and neuropeptide Y: divergent interaction with energy depletion and leptin, Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 258, 119-122 (1999).
40. S. Taheri, M. Mahmoodi, J. Opacka-Juffry, M. A. Ghatei and S. R. Bloom, Distribution and quantification of immunoreactive orexin A in rat tissues, FEBSLett. 457, 157-161 (1999).
41. Y. Zhu, A. Yamanaka, K. Kunii, N. Tsujino, K. Goto and T. Sakurai, Orexin-mediated feeding behavior involves both leptin-sensitive and -insensitive pathways, Physiol Behav. 77, 251-257 (2002).
Was this article helpful?
Trying To Lose Weight Can Be Tough. But... Not Losing Weight and Gaining What You Lost Back, Sucks. If you've ever felt that no matter what you do to lose weight nothing seems to work. If you've ever felt that there has got to be some kind of a system or way to lose weight...but just have not found it yet.