Pituitaryadrenal Axis371

Willis K. Samson, Meghan M. Taylor, and Alastair V. Ferguson

1. INTRODUCTION 371

2. THE ANATOMICAL FRAMEWORK 371

3. HYPOCRETIN AND THE CENTRAL ARM OF THE HPA AXIS 373

4. HYPOCRETIN ACTIONS AT THE LEVEL OF THE PITUITARY GLAND 375

5. HYPOCRETIN ACTIONS IN THE ADRENAL GLAND 377

6. AN INTEGRATIVE VIEW OF THE ACTIONS OF THE HYPOCRETINS IN THE HYPOTHALAMO-PITUITARY-ADRENAL AXIS 378

7. CONCLUDING REMARKS 380

8. REFERENCES 380

26. OREXINS (HYPOCRETINS) IN THE GUT 385

Annette L. Kirchgessner and Erik Naslund

1. INTRODUCTION 385

2. DISTRIBUTION OF HCRT/OREXIN IN THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT 386

2.1. Rodent Gastrointestinal Tract 386

2.2. Human Gastrointestinal Tract 387

3. HCRT/OREXIN EFFECTS ON VAGAL AFFERENT SIGNALING 387

4. FASTING SMALL BOWEL MOTILITY 388

5. GASTRIC EMPTYING 389

6. GASTRIC AND INTESTINAL SECRETIONS 390

7. SUMMARY 391

8. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 391

9. REFERENCES 391

27. HYPOCRETINS IN ENDOCRINE REGULATION 395

Miguel López, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Tomás García-Caballero, Rosa Señarís, and Carlos Diéguez

1. INTRODUCTION 395

2. NEUROENDOCRINE ANATOMY OF THE HYPOCRETIN SYSTEM 396

3. THE HYPOCRETIN SYSTEM IN PERIPHERAL ENDOCRINE

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