Peptidereceptor System In Vivo206

2. 1. Orexin Receptor Agonists 206

2.2. Orexin Receptor Antagonists 207

3. IN VIVO PHARMACOLOGY OF OREXIN RECEPTORS 208

3.1. Feeding and Appetite 209

3.2. Arousal and Sleep 210

3.3. Pain Modulation 213

3.4. Other Actions 214

4. CONCLUSIONS AND THERAPEUTIC OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE FUTURE 216

5. REFERENCES 217

14. INTRACELLULAR SIGNAL PATHWAYS UTILIZED BY THE

HYPOCRETIN/OREXIN RECEPTORS 221

Jyrki P. Kukkonen and Karl E. O. Akerman

1. INTRODUCTION 221

2. CELLULAR SIGNALING PATHWAYS 221

2.1. G-proteins 221

2.2. Hypocretin Receptor Signaling in Neurons 223

2.3. Hypocretin Receptor Signaling in Endocrine Systems 225

2.4. Hypocretin Receptor Signaling in Heterologous Expression Systems 226

3. CONCENTRATION-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIPS 227

4. RECEPTOR SUBTYPE DIFFERENCES IN SIGNALING? 228

5. FUTURE PERSPECTIVES 228

6. REFERENCES 228

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