In contrast to Hcrt-1-induced long-lasting elevations in ICSS thresholds, a single injection of Hcrt-1 was associated with a slight effect on cocaine self-administration, given that cocaine consumption remained nearly unchanged just after or 6 hours after the Hcrt-1 infusion.61 Preliminary results obtained in our lab showed that Hcrt did not induce any significant increase on heroin intake in rats either. Furthermore, despite an effect on ICSS thresholds,42 leptin does not modulate cocaine nor heroin self-administration in rats. Such a discrepancy between a marked elevation in ICSS thresholds and an absence of effect on both cocaine and heroin intake remains unclear. However, dissociation of neural systems subserving positive reinforcement and incentive motivation has been proposed previously.83-85
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